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Table 1 Factors associated with COVID-19 status by adults in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Associations between COVID-19 testing status, non-communicable diseases and HIV status among residents of sub-Saharan Africa during the first wave of the pandemic

Variables Total
N = 5945
Tested positive for COVID-19 infection Had symptoms of COVID-19 but did not get tested
No Yes p value No Yes p value
N = 5778 N = 167 N = 5296 N = 649
n (%) n (%)   N (%) n (%)  
Age mean (SD) in years   Mean 36.4 SD 11.4 Mean 36.9 SD 11.7 0.595 Mean 36.9 SD 11.5 Mean 32.9 SD 9.8  < 0.001
Sex            
 Male 2745 2665 97.1 80 2.9 0.649 2409 87.8 336 12.2 0.002
 Female 3200 3113 97.3 87 2.7 2887 90.2 313 9.8
Level of education
 No formal education 55 53 96.4 2 3.6 0.461 49 89.1 6 10.9 0.698
 Primary 89 87 97.8 2 2.2 81 91.0 8 9.0
 Secondary 887 869 98.0 18 2.0 781 88.0 106 12.0
 Tertiary 4914 2693 97.0 79 3.0 4385 89.2 529 10.8
Employment status
 Retired 139 134 96.4 5 3.6 0.610 132 95.0 7 5.0 0.014
 Student 784 771 98.3 13 1.7 680 86.7 104 13.3
 Employed 4130 4000 96.9 130 3.1 3696 89.5 434 10.5
 Unemployed 892 873 97.9 19 2.1 788 88.3 104 11.7
Sub regions            
 Western and Central Africa 5086 4952 97.4 134 2.6 0.038 4542 89.3 544 10.7 0.275
 Eastern and Southern Africa 859 826 96.2 33 3.8 774 87.8 106 12.2
Non-communicable disease
 Diabetes            
  No 5806 5643 97.2 163 2.8 0.960 5172 89.1 634 10.9 0.962
  Yes 139 135 97.1 4 2.9 124 89.2 15 10.8
 Hypertension            
  No 5469 5325 97.4 144 2.6 0.005 4871 89.1 598 10.9 0.883
  Yes 476 453 95.2 23 4.8 425 89.3 51 10.7
 Cancer            
  No 5930 5765 97.2 166 2.8 0.365 5285 89.1 645 10.9 0.050
  Yes 15 14 93.3 1 6.7 11 73.3 4 26.7
 Heart conditions
  No 5899 5736 97.2 163 2.8 0.015 5260 89.2 639 10.8 0.018
  Yes 46 42 91.3 4 8.7 36 78.3 10 21.7
 Respiratory conditions
  No 5888 5723 97.2 165 2.8 0.748 5256 89.3 632 10.7  < 0.001
  Yes 57 55 96.5 2 3.5 40 70.2 17 29.8
 Depression            
  No 5531 5379 97.3 152 2.7 0.299 4968 89.8 563 10.2  < 0.001
  Yes 414 399 96.4 15 3.6 328 79.2 86 20.8
HIV status
 Not living with HIV 4962 4804 96.8 158 3.2  < 0.001 4414 89.0 548 11.0 0.480
 Living with HIV 983 974 99.1 9 0.9 882 89.7 101 10.3
COVID-19 status
 Friend tested positive for COVID-19 infection
  No 4753 4695 98.8 58 1.2  < 0.001 4351 91.5 402 8.5  < 0.001
  Yes 1192 1083 90.9 109 9.1 945 79.3 247 20.7
 Know someone who died of COVID-19 infection
  No 4011 3942 98.3 69 1.7  < 0.001 3667 91.4 344 8.6  < 0.001
  Yes 1934 1836 94.9 98 5.1 1629 84.2 305 15.8
Co-habitation
 No 1296 1248 97.4 48 2.6 0.028 1143 89.3 153 10.7 0.246
 Yes 4649 4530 96.3 119 3.7 4153 88.2 496 11.8