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Table 2 Characteristics of all study participants at the Emergency Department

From: A retrospective cohort study of the effect of SARS-CoV-2 point of care rapid RT-PCR at the Emergency Department on targeted admission

  Period 1 (N = 781) Period 2 (N = 988) Period 3 (N = 1171) P value Total (N = 2940)
n =  % (95% CI) n =  % (95% CI) n =  % (95% CI)   n =  % (95% CI)
Demographic data of study participants
 Age [mean (± SD)] 61 (± 22)   66 (± 18)   61 (± 20)   P = 0.04 61 (± 21)  
 Female sex 417 46.6 (43.1–50.1) 489 50.5 (47.4–53.6) 591 49.5 (46.6–52.3) P = 0.27 1497 50.9 (49.1–52.7)
SARS-CoV-2 test results
 Positive test at the ED 70 9.0 (7.2–11.2) 135 13.7 (11.7–15.9) 203 17.3 (15.3–19.6)   408 13.9 (12.7–15.2)
 Negative test at the ED 374 47.9 (44.4–51.4) 515 52.1 (49.0–55.2) 569 48.6 (45.7–51.5)   1458 49.6 (47.8–51.4)
 Positive test before admission 92 11.8 (9.7–14.2) 193 19.5 (17.2–22.1) 283 24.2 (21.8–26.7)   568 19.3 (17.9–20.8)
 Not tested 245 31.4 (28.2–34.7) 145 14.7 (12.6–17.0) 116 9.9 (8.3–11.8)   506 17.2 (15.9–18.6)
ICD-10 diagnosis at discharge from ED
 Covid-19 53 6.8 (5.2–8.85) 146 14.8 (12.7–17.1) 229 19.6 (17.4–21.9)   428 14.6 (13.3–15.9)
 Respiratory symptoms 109 14.0 (11.7–16.6) 163 16.5 (14.3–18.9) 143 12.2 (10.5–14.2)   415 14.1 (12.9–15.4)
 Other infection 103 13.3 (11.0–15.7) 107 10.8 (9.0–12. 9) 106 9.1 (7.5–10.8)   316 10.7 (9.7–11.9)
 Chest pain or heart disease 95 12.2 (10.1–14.6) 95 9.6 (7.9–11.6) 107 9.1 (7.6–10.9)   297 10.1 (9.1–11.2)
 Abdominal pain or GI symptoms 93 11.9 (9.8–14.4) 78 7.9 (6.4–9.7) 102 8.7 (7.2–10.5)   273 9.3 (8.3–10.4)
 Other internal medicine 58 7.4 (5.8–9.5) 54 5.5 (4.2–7.1) 78 6.77 (5.4–8.2)   190 6.5 (5.6–7.4)
 Neurological deficit or symptoms 53 6.4 (5.2–8.8) 48 4.9 (3.7–6.4) 59 5.0 (3.9–6.4)   160 5.4 (4.7–6.3)
 Other respiratory tract infection 35 4.5 (3.2–6.2) 30 3.0 (2.1–4.3) 41 3.5 (2.6–4.7)   106 3.6 (3.0–4.3)
 Trauma 25 3.2 (2.2–4.7) 34 3.4 (2.5–4.8) 29 2.5 (1.7–3.5)   88 3.0 (2.4–3.7)
 Other orthopedic diagnose 20 2.6 (1.7–3.9) 16 1.6 (1.0–2.6) 34 2.9 (2.1–4.0)   70 2.4 (1.9–3.0)
 Other surgery or urology 20 2.6 (1.7–3.9) 10 1.0 (1.9–0.6) 17 1.5 (0.9–2.3)   47 1.6 (1.2–2.1)
 No diagnosis 91 11.7 (9.6–14.1) 173 17.5 (15.3–20.0) 180 15.4 (13.4–17.6)   444 15.1 (13.9–16.4)
 Other 26 3.3 (2.3–4.8) 34 3.4 (2.5–4.8) 46 3.9 (3.0–5.2)   106 3.6 (3.0–4.3)
Discharge from ED
 Discharge to home from ED, total 395 50.6 (47.1–54.1) 478 48.4 (45.3–51.5) 580 49.5 (46.7–52.4)   1453 49.4 (47.6–51.2)
  Positive test at the ED 20 2.6 (1.7–3.9) 50 5.1 (3.9–6.6) 81 6.9 (5.6–8.5)   151 5.1 (4.4–6.0)
  Negative test at the ED 119 15.2 (12.9–17.9) 207 21.0 (18.5–23.6) 268 22.9 (20.6–25.4)   594 20.2 (18.8–21.7)
  Positive test before admission 51 6.5 (5.0–8.5) 104 10.5 (8.8–12.6) 136 11.6 (9.9–13.6)   291 9.9 (8.9–11.0)
  Not tested 205 26.2 (23.3–29.4) 117 11.8 (10.0–14.0) 95 8.1 (6.7–9.8)   417 14.2 (13.0–15.5)
 Hospital admissions, total 386 49.4 (45.9–52.9) 510 51.6 (48.5–54.7) 591 50.5 (47.6–53.3)   1487 50.6 (48.8–52.4)
  Positive test at the ED 50 6.4 (4.9–8.3) 85 8.6 (7.0–10.5) 122 10.4 (8.8–12.3)   257 8.7 (7.8–9.8)
  Negative test at the ED 255 32.7 (29.5–36.0) 308 31.2 (28.4–34.1) 301 25.7 (23.3–28.3)   864 29.4 (27.8–31.1)
  Positive test before admission 41 5.2 (3.9–7.0) 89 9.0 (7.4–11.0) 147 12.6 (10.8–14.6)   277 9.4 (8.4–10.5)
  Not tested 40 5.1 (3.8–6.9) 28 3.6 (2.5–5.1) 21 1.8 (1.2–2.7)   89 3.0 (2.5–3.7)
ICD-10 diagnosis, death at ED or hospital ward
 Covid-19 13 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 29 2.9 (2.1–4.2) 58 5.0 (3.9–6.3)   100 3.4 (2.8–4.1)
 Other infection 3 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 11 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 11 0.9 (0.5–1.7)   25 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 Cardiovascular disease 15 1.9 (1.2–3.1) 6 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 17 1.5 (0.9–2.3)   38 1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 Neurological disease 7 0.9 (0.4–1.8) 2 0.2 (0.04–0.7) 9 0.8 (0.4–1.5)   18 0.6 (0.4–1.0)
 Malignancy 3 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 5 0.5 (0.2–1.2) 3 0.3 (0.1–0.8)   11 0.4 (0.2–0.7)
 Other 3 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 8 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1 0.1 (0.004–0.5)   12 0.4 (0.2–0.7)
 Hospital deaths, total 44 5.6 (4.2–7.5) 61 6.2 (4.8–7.9) 99 8.5 (7.0–10.2)   204 6.9 (6.1–7.9)
  1. Demographic data, SARS-CoV-2 test results and discharge diagnoses of all included patients, in all three study periods. The fraction of participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests taken at the Emergency department (ED) or before admission to the ED increased during the study period, as did Covid-19 diagnosis at discharge. ICD-10 diagnoses were grouped into compound variables (described in detail in Additional file 1). Total number of participants in each period (N =) and in each subgroup (n =) are presented with percentage as fraction of total and 95% confidence interval (CI) to enable comparisons between the periods, or mean value with standard deviation (SD), as indicated. P-values calculated by One-Way-ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison tests