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Table 2 Risk factors associated with high HOMA-IR

From: Insulin resistance in people living with HIV is associated with exposure to thymidine analogues and/or didanosine and prior immunodeficiency

Traditional risk factors OR [95% CI] P-value aOR [95% CI] P-value
Age, per 10 years older 1.45 [1.22–1.69] < 0.001 1.57 [1.29–1.90] < 0.001
Male sex 0.86 [0.52–1.43] 0.556 1.04 [0.57–1.90] 0.894
Abdominal obesity 7.34 [4.49–12.00] < 0.001 4.93 [2.80–8.68] < 0.001
Waist circumference, per cm 1.10 [1.08–1.13]  < 0.001 1.11 [1.07–1.14] < 0.001
Hip circumference, per cm 1.08 [1.05–1.10]  < 0.001 1.01 [0.97–1.04] 0.768
BMI
 Normal weight, BMI 18.5-24.99 Ref   Ref  
 Overweight, BMI 25-29.99 2.56 [1.67–3.91] < 0.001 2.69 [1.73–4.18] < 0.001
 Obese, BMI ≥ 30 10.53 [6.06–18.31] < 0.001 12.43 [6.81–22.67] < 0.001
Smoking
 Never smoker Ref   Ref  
 Current smoker 0.84 [0.52–1.34] 0.453 1.29 [0.76–2.19] 0.347
 Previous smoking 1.19 [0.79–1.78] 0.405 1.10 [0.69–1.74] 0.686
Non-European origin 1.16 [0.67–2.01] 0.598 1.25 [0.65–2.40] 0.497
HIV-specific risk factors
Exposure to older generation ART* 2.35 [1.62–3.41] < 0.001 2.14 [1.24–3.71] 0.006
Duration of ART, per 5 years* 1.38 [1.20–1.59] < 0.001 1.33 (0.99–1.79) 0.054
Time with HIV, per 5 years 1.26 [1.14–1.39] < 0.001 1.19 [1.04–1.35] 0.009
CD4+ count, per 100 cells/µL 1.00 [1.00–1.00] 0.285 1.00 [1.00–1.00] 0.333
CD4+ nadir < 200 cells/µL 1.69 [1.17–2.43] 0.005 1.56 [1.02–2.38] 0.038
CD4+/CD8+-ratio, per 0.1 change in ratio 0.79 [0.53–1.17] 0.237 0.81 [0.53–1.24] 0.326
Previous AIDS defining condition 1.61 [1.04–2.51] 0.033 1.39 [CI 0.83–2.30] 0.209
  1. Adjusted OR calculated using logistic regression in a model adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and origin
  2. *Calculated using our adjusted model, further adjusting for time with HIV