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Table 2 Factors associated with reporting HZ—findings from age and sex adjusted and fully adjusted multivariate logistic regression model

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with herpes zoster in England: a cross-sectional analysis of the Health Survey for England

Variable Age and sex adjusted Fully-adjusted
OR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Male Ref.   Ref.  
 Female 1.21 (1.05–1.40) 0.010 1.21 (1.03–1.43) 0.022
Age-group
 16–24 Ref.   Ref.  
 25–34 1.41 (0.86–2.24) 0.175 1.32 (0.77–2.25) 0.311
 35–44 1.99 (1.24–3.21) 0.005 1.97 (1.19–3.28) 0.009
 45–54 3.06 (1.96–4.78) 0.000 2.83 (1.74–4.61) 0.000
 55–64 4.28 (2.77–8.98) 0.000 3.72 (2.32–5.97) 0.000
 65–74 5.75 (3.69–8.98) 0.000 5.26 (3.24–8.54) 0.000
 75 +  8.41 (5.41–13.10) 0.000 7.76 (4.73–12.76) 0.000
Ethnicity
 Non-White Ref.   Ref.  
 White 2.67 (1.92–3.70) 0.000 2.00 (1.40–2.88) 0.000
Well-being (WEMBMS score)
 Bottom 15th centile Ref.   Ref.  
 Remainder 0.92 (0.72–1.17) 0.487 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 0.674
 Top 15th centile 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.391 0.98 (0.73–1.34) 0.922
Household size
 1 Ref.    
 2 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 0.750 1.06 (0.87–1.31) 0.552
 3 1.04 (0.79–1.35) 0.790 1.11 (0.81–1.51) 0.525
 4 1.06 (0.76–1.43) 0.710 1.18 (0.84–1.65) 0.333
 5 or more 0.89 (0.57–1.37) 0.586 0.97 (0.60–1.59) 0.915
BMIa,b
 Not overweight or obese Ref.   Ref.  
 Overweight 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 0.743 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 0.581
 Obese 0.91 (0.75–1.11) 0.353 0.88 (0.70–1.09) 0.243
Area level Deprivationc
 Least deprived Ref.   Ref.  
 Second-lowest 1.15 (0.90–1.46) 0.267 1.13 (0.87–1.47) 0.349
 Middle 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.805 1.06 (0.83–1.34) 0.649
 Second-highest 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 0.300 1.12 (0.87–1.44) 0.385
 Most deprived 0.82 (0.65–1.04) 0.108 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.482
Physical activity—moderate
 No days Ref.   Ref.  
 1–2 days 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.423 0.86 (0.68–1.07) 0.179
 3–4 days 1.23 (0.97–1.56) 0.088 1.10 (0.86–1.42) 0.449
 5–6 days 1.21 (0.88–1.66) 0.234 1.11 (0.79–1.54) 0.544
 7 days 1.40 (1.12–1.74) 0.003 1.29 (1.01–1.66) 0.043
Smoking status
 Never smoker Ref.   Ref.  
 Ex regular/Ex occasional smoker 1.21 (1.02–1.43) 0.026 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 0.362
 Current smoker 1.24 (0.99–1.57) 0.066 1.22 (0.94–1.57) 0.132
Alcohol consumptiond
None Ref.   Ref.  
 ≤ 2 units 1.27 (1.04–1.55) 0.020 1.15 (0.92–1.43) 0.218
 > 2 and ≤ 4 units 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 0.961 0.98 (0.76–1.27) 0.882
 > 4 and ≤ 8 units 1.40 (1.12–1.76) 0.004 1.17 (0.91–1.51) 0.224
 8 + units 1.34 (1.03–1.75) 0.027 1.22 (0.91–1.63) 0.177
Clinical conditions
 Diabetese 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 0.300 1.00 (0.76–1.33) 0.977
 Respiratory disease 1.47 (1.14–1.90) 0.003 1.31 (0.96–1.77) 0.085
 Digestive disorders 1.48 (1.15–1.92) 0.003 1.51 (1.13–2.01) 0.005
 Genito urinary disorders 1.40 (0.95–2.05) 0.087 1.25 (0.81–1.94) 0.317
 Mental health condition 1.26 (0.91–1.75) 0.165 1.15 (0.80–1.65) 0.448
  1. BMI body mass index, WEMWBS Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale
  2. aBMI was calculated using measured height and weight where available and supplemented with self-reported BMI among participants with no height and/or weight measurements (BMI categories: < 25 kg/m2, not overweight or obese; 25 to < 30 kg/m2, overweight; and 30 kg/m2 or more, obese)
  3. bUnderweight included with normal weight due to small numbers
  4. cArea level deprivation defined using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 scores
  5. dUnits of alcohol consumed on heaviest drinking day in past 7 days
  6. eDoctor-diagnosed diabetes
  7. ^Statistical significance level: p value < 0.05