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Table 1 Lifetime prevalence of shingles, by sample characteristics

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with herpes zoster in England: a cross-sectional analysis of the Health Survey for England

  Shingles % (95% CI) p-value^
Gender
 Male 10.3 (9.3–11.5) 0.002
 Female 12.6 (11.6–13.7)
Age-group
 16–24 3.9 (2.6–5.9) 0.000
 25–34 5.5 (4.2–7.1)
 35–44 7.6 (6.1–9.4)
 45–54 11.2 (9.3–13.3)
 55–64 14.9 (12.97–17.2)
 65–74 19.1 (17.0–21.5)
 75 +  25.9 (23.2–28.7)
Ethnicity
 Non-White 3.8 (2.8–5.2) 0.000
 White 12.6 (11.8–13.5)
 Missing 8.2 (1.9–29.2)
Well-being (WEMWBS score)
 Bottom 15th centile 12.5 (10.6–12.9) 0.584
 Remainder 11.4 (10.4–12.4)
 Top 15th centile 12.1 (10.2–14.1)
 Missing 10.5 (8.6–12.9)
Household size
 1 16.1 (14.3–18.1) 0.000
 2 14.1 (12.8–15.5)
 3 9.1 (7.4–11.1)
 4 8.2 (6.6–10.1)
 5 or more 6.5 (4.5–9.3)
BMIc,d
 Not overweight or obese 10.4 (9.3–11.7) 0.143
 Overweight 12.3 (11.1–13.7)  
 Obese 11.8 (10.4–13.4)  
 Missing 13.4 (8.4–20.6)  
Area level deprivation quintilesa
 Least deprived 12.4 (10.9–14.0) 0.001
 Second lowest 13.1 (11.1–15.6)
 Middle 11.8 (10.2–13.7)
 Second highest 11.8 (10.2–13.7)
 Most deprived 8.3 (7.0–9.0)
Physical activity (moderate)e
 No days 11.5 (10.2–12.9) 0.006
 1–2 days 9.4 (8.1–10.8)
 3–4 days 11.8 (9.9–14.0)
 5–6 days 11.5 (8.9–14.7)
 7 days 14.2 (12.2–16.5)
Smoking status
 Never smoker 10.1 (9.1–11.2) 0.000
 Ex-regular/Ex-occasional 14.9 (13.5–16.4)
 Current 10.3 (8.6–12.2)
 Missing 1.9 (0.5–7.5)
Alcohol consumptionb
 None 10.3 (9.2–11.4) 0.000
 ≤ 2 units 14.4 (12.6–16.4)
 > 2 and ≤ 4 units 10.7 (8.9–12.8)
 > 4 and ≤ 8 units 12.9 (10.8–15.2)
 8 + units 10.4 (8.5–12.7)
 Missing 23.6 (3.6–72.0)
Clinical conditions
 Diabetes 15.1 (12.4–18.2) 0.015
 Respiratory Disease 17.0 (14.0–20.5) 0.000
 Digestive disorders 19.3 (15.7–23.5) 0.000
 Genito-urinary disorders 20.3 (15.1–26.8) 0.000
 Mental health condition 12.2 (9.3–15.8) 0.438
  1. BMI body mass index, WEMWBS Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale
  2. aArea level deprivation defined using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 scores
  3. bUnits of alcohol consumed on heaviest drinking day in past 7 days
  4. cBMI was calculated using measured height and weight where available and supplemented with self-reported BMI among participants with no height and/or weight measurements (BMI categories: < 25 kg/m2, not overweight or obese; 25 to < 30 kg/m2, overweight; and 30 kg/m2 or more, obese)
  5. dUnderweight included with normal weight due to small numbers
  6. eNumber of days performing moderate physical activity in the past 7 days
  7. 2 tests were used to determine the statistical significance of any difference in the distributions. Statistical significance level: p value < 0.05