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Table 2 The lab test and clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Predicting progression to severe COVID-19 using the PAINT score

Laboratory findings All patients (n = 239) Without progression (n = 216) Progression to severe (n = 23) p value
Systolic pressure (mmHg) 129.00 (87–195) 128 (87–195) 133 (108–151) 0.775
Diastolic pressure (mmHg) 78 (51–114) 78 (51–106) 75 (60–114) 0.131
Rhythm of the heart (beats/min) 85 (37–140) 85 (37–140) 86 (75–114) 0.796
Breathing rate (beats/min) 20 (15–32) 20 (15–25) 20 (16–32) 0.008
CURB-65 score 0 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–3) 0.497
qSOFA score 0 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–3) 0.035
WBC (× 109/L) 5.07 (1.23–17.48) 5.06 (1.23–17.48) 5.27 (2.55–11.38) 0.529
Neutrophils (× 109/L) 3.08 (0.69–16.18) 3.03 (0.69–16.18) 3.75 (1.16–9.53) 0.672
Percentage of neutrophils (%) 63.5 (23.1–97.7) 62.0 (23.1–97.7) 68.9 (35.9–94.3) 0.000
Lymphocyte (× 109/L) 1.22(0.29–3.48) 1.29 (0.31–3.48) 0.94 (0.29–1.64) 0.001
NLR 2.41 (0.42–32.21) 2.28 (0.42–27.90) 3.47 (0.72–32.21) 0.019
Percentage of lymphocyte (%) 25.9 (2.9–59.2) 26.6 (3.3–59.2) 20.7 (2.9–50.2) 0.000
HGB (g/L) 125 (65–159) 125 (65–159) 119 (90–149) 0.545
PLT (× 109/L) 217 (27–608) 219.5 (27–608) 210 (128–490) 0.078
CRP (mg/L) 38.1 (3–181) 35.9 (3–181) 64.7 (6–171) 0.058
ALT (IU/L) 22 (6–274) 21 (6–274) 28 (9–162) 0.171
AST (IU/L) 22(10–312) 21 (10–312) 30 (13–104) 0.017
GGT (IU/L) 24 (0.85–3-8) 23 (0.85–309) 28 (10–105) 0.084
TBIL (µmol/L) 10.0 (2.5–36.8) 10.1 (2.5–36.8) 9.7 (6.0–19.1) 0.010
DBIL (µmol/L) 3.5 (0.6–13.6) 3.5 (0.6–13.6) 4.1 (2.6–9.2) 0.020
Urea (mmol/L) 4.3(1.7–39.2) 4.16 (1.70–39.2) 5 (2.91–28.1) 0.010
Cr (µmol/L) 58 (35–1045) 58 (35–1045) 65 (37–231) 0.017
UA (µmol/L) 267 (69–683) 267 (69–683) 274 (106–536) 0.293
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.37 (3.06–34.2) 5.36 (3.06–34.20) 5.55 (3.12–23.04) 0.001
Potassium (µmol/L) 3.97 (2.52–7.97) 3.96 (2.52–7.97) 4.07 (3.44–5.84) 0.402
Sodium (mmol/L) 142 (126–154) 142 (126–154) 139 (131–148) 0.004
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.16 (1.53–4.35) 2.17 (1.53–4.35) 2.03 (1.89–4.35) 0.525
Magnesium (mmol/L) 0.84 (0.21–2.07) 0.84 (0.21–1.13) 0.87 (0.63–2.07) 0.926
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.96 (2.14–9.97) 4.00 (2.29–9.97) 3.38 (2.14–4.58) 0.960
Triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 1.24 (0.28–8.40) 1.24 (0.28–8.40) 1.26 (0.49–2.53) 0.178
PT (s) 11.7 (10.2–17.9) 11.7 (10.2–17.9) 12.4 (11–14.3) 0.029
Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.73 (1.05–19.7) 3.61 (1.05–19.7) 4.62 (2.08–6.78) 0.001
D-dimer (mg/L) 0.515 (0.100–55.3) 0.47 (0.10–55.3) 0.92 (0.29–18.07) 0.420
CK (IU/L) 0.84 (0.18–9.51) 0.82 (0.18–9.51) 1.16 (0.34–2.46) 0.875
Myoglobin (ng/mL) 32.38 (9.92–282.83) 31.44 (9.92–282.83) 40.78 (18.15–270.34) 0.004
BNP (pg/mL) 67.44 (0–5398.00) 59.82 (0–5398) 121.65 (6.72–1150.00) 0.728
PCT (ng/L) 0.042 (0–4.320) 0.04 (0–4.32) 0.065 (0–1.080) 0.000
CD3+ T cell (/μL) 807 (164–2284) 825 (164–2284) 510 (166–1182) 0.002
CD4+ T cell (/μL) 484(59–1705) 508 (59–1705) 378 (59–754) 0.003
CD8+ T cell (/μL) 262(43–951) 271.5 (43–951) 195 (79–417) 0.008
CD19+ T cell (/μL) 152 (18–986) 156 (18–986) 123 (31–395) 0.031
CD16+/CD56+ NK cell (/μL) 128 (12–677) 134 (12–677) 88 (22–278) 0.012
Ig A (g/L) 2.22 (1–11) 2.22 (1–11) 2.36 (1–8) 0.074
Ig G (g/L) 11.4 (6–30) 11.3 (6–30) 12.6 (6–17) 0.947
Ig M (g/L) 0.89 (0.26–2.52) 0.92 (0.26–2.52) 0.70 (0–2) 0.040
Ig E (g/L) 37.7 (0–2220) 38 (0–2220) 33.6 (0–590) 0.897
  1. Quick sequential organ failure assessment, qSOFA; White blood cell, WBC; neutrophil count, NEU; Neutrophils/Lymphocyte ratio, NLR; hemoglobin, HGB; platelet count, PLT; prothrombin time, PT; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, GGT; albumin, ALB; total bilirubin, TBIL; Direct bilirubin, DBIL; uric acid, UA, creatinine, Cr; creatine kinase, CK; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; Brain Natriuretic Peptide, BNP; procalcitonin, PCT; c-reactive protein, CRP