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Table 1 Eligibility and exclusion criteria in the study

From: The efficacy of pivmecillinam in oral step-down treatment in hospitalised patients with E. coli bacteremic urinary tract infection; a single-arm, uncontrolled treatment study

Eligibility criteria
 E. coli bacteremia
 ≥ 18 years old
 Relevant evidence of UTI#
Exclusion criteria
 Evidence of other ongoing bacterial infection
 Septic shock and treatment with vasopressors due to organ failure
 Pyonephrosis or perinephric abscess
 E. coli isolate resistant to mecillinam (MIC > 8 mg/L)
 Hereditary organic acidurias
 Other parenteral pretreatment than standard of care##
 Severe renal failure (e-GFR < 15 mL/min)
 Pregnancy/breast feeding
 Severe neutropenia (< 0.5 × 109 cells/L)
 Obvious symptoms of prostatitis
 Concurrent valproate treatment
 Treatment with other gram-negative antibiotic
 Previous study participation
 Lack of co-operability###
  1. e-GFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. #Relevant symptoms of UTI would be dysuria, pollakisuria, suprapubic pain or costovertebral tenderness. Relevant microbiological finding would be quantitative urine cultivation (≥ 103 CFU/mL) of E. coli showing identical susceptibility pattern as the isolate from blood culture. Relevant urine-analysis were positive leukocyte esterase- or nitrite-test on dipstick
  3. ##Ampicillin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam
  4. ###Confusion, mental retardation or terminally ill cancer-patients