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Table 1 Descriptive analysis for all parameters used in scores/formulas, globally and by results from qRT-PCR screening test

From: Clinical prediction models for diagnosis of COVID-19 among adult patients: a validation and agreement study

  qRT-PCR test
All Positive Negative % missing
Demographics      
 Age (years) Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 73.00 (62–82) 72.00 (62–81) 73.00 (62–82)  
 Gender Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  Male (n, %) 883 (54.6) 320 (61.7) 563 (51.2)  
  Female (n, %) 735 (45.4) 199 (38.3) 536 (48.8)  
 Period Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  Wave 1 (n, %) 588 (36.3) 146 (28.1) 442 (40.2)  
  Between (n, %) 204 (12.6) 15 (2.9) 189 (17.2)  
  Wave 2 (n, %) 826 (51.1) 358 (69.0) 468 (42.6)  
Comorbidities      
 Cardiac disease Total 593 268 325 63.3%
  Yes (n, %) 200 (33.7) 72 (26.9) 128 (39.4)  
 Immunosuppression Total 593 268 325 63.3%
  Yes (n, %) 38 (6.4) 11 (4.1) 27 (8.3)  
 Renal failure Total 594 268 326 63.3%
  Yes (n, %) 48 (8.1) 17 (6.3) 31 (9.5)  
Symptoms      
 Fever Total 608 272 336 62.4%
  Yes (n, %) 282 (46.4) 169 (62.1) 113 (33.6)  
 Dry cough Total 607 272 335 62.4%
  Yes (n, %) 220 (36.2) 125 (46.0) 95 (28.4)  
 Wet cough Total 607 272 335  
  Yes (n, %) 106 (17.5) 45 (16.5) 61 (18.2)  
 Dyspnea Total 608 272 336 62.4%
  Yes (n, %) 403 (66.3) 192 (70.6) 211 (62.8)  
 Diarrhea Total 607 272 335 62.4%
  Yes (n, %) 128 (21.1) 69 (25.4) 59 (17.6)  
Biological parameters      
 LDH U/L Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 275 (219–368) 349 (267–457) 252 (205–318)  
 CRP mg/L Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 60.40 (15.1–140.9) 86.40 (43.6–164.2) 41.40 (9.50–129.9)  
 Procalcitonin µg/L Total 1615 588 202 0.2%
  P50 (P25–P75) 0.10 (0.04–0.34) 0.13 (0.06–0.34) 0.09 (0.04–0.35)  
 Lymphocytes 103/mm3 Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 1.01 (0.66–1.57) 0.85 (0.61–1.19) 1.12 (0.71–1.74)  
 Basophils 103/mm3 Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 0.03 (0.01–0.05) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.03 (0.02–0.05)  
 Eosinophils 103/mm3 Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 0.03 (0.01–0.12) 0.01 (0.00–0.03) 0.07 (0.01–0.16)  
 Ferritin µg/L Total 1614 519 1099 0.2%
  P50 (P25–P75) 332.5 (145.1–762.7) 702.00 (322.4–1441.4) 248.28 (108.8–530)  
 Leukocytes 103/mm3 Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 9.40 (6.61–12.76) 7.02 (5.00–10.26) 10.40 (7.83–13.90)  
 Neutrophils 103/mm3 Total 1618 519 1099 0%
  P50 (P25–P75) 7.09 (4.68–10.28) 5.46 (3.50–8.51) 8.03 (5.50–11.48)  
Chest X-ray      
 Radiological anomaly Total 1475 492 983 8.8%
No (n, %) 294 (19.9) 37 (7.5) 257 (26.1)  
  Yes (n, %) 1181 (80.1) 455 (92.5) 726 (73.9)  
 Finding (n, %) Total 1475 492 983 8.8%
  No atypical signs 825 (55.9) 106 (21.5) 719 (73.1)  
  Subpleural or lower lung dominant distribution 104 (7.1) 56 (11.4) 48 (4.9)  
  Multilobar or bilateral lesion 458 (31.1) 301 (61.2) 157 (16.0)  
  GGO with or without consolidation 88 (6.0) 29 (5.9) 59 (6.0)  
 Alternative diagnosis (n, %) Total 1618 519 1099 0%
More likely other diagnosis 309 (19.1) 15 (2.9) 294 (26.8)  
  Hard to determine 1055 (65.2) 379 (73.0) 676 (61.5)  
  More likely COVID-19 254 (15.7) 125 (24.1) 129 (11.7)  
 Other finding (n, %) Total 1475 492 983 8.8%
  No infiltrate 861 (58.4) 122 (24.8) 739 (75.2)  
  Unilateral infiltrate 129 (8.7) 48 (9.8) 81 (8.2)  
  Bilateral infiltrate 485 (32.9) 322 (65.4) 163 (16.6)