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Table 4 Within-group comparison of clinical characteristics and quality of life in the exercise and control groups testing the effects of aerobic exercise among PLWHIV diagnosed with HAND

From: Effects of aerobic exercise on quality of life of people with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on antiretroviral therapy: a randomised controlled trial

Approach Intention-to-treat Per protocol
Variables Base (n = 38) Post-Rx (n = 38) Follow-up (n = 38) χ2 p Base (n = 35) Post-Rx (n = 24–32) Follow-up (n = 24–32) χ2/F p
Mean Rank x̅ (SD)/Mean rank
Within exercise group
 Depression 2.12a 1.93b 1.96b 1.924 0.382 3.75 (3.02) 2.67 (3.24) 4.08 (2.93) 1.923 0.158
 ART adherence 1.98a 2.11b 1.92b 5.687 0.058 100.00 (0.00) 92.25 (2.75) 100.00 (0.00) 1.000 0.384
 Physical QoL 1.40a 2.23b 2.37b 89.177 < 0.001* 43.40 (14.22) 53.64 (12.44) 56.16 (10.44) 15.413 0.000*
 Psychological QOL 1.65a 2.11b 2.23b 35.074 < 0.001* 49.62 (15.58) 55.73 (14.25) 60.19 (11.82) 4.319 0.019*
 Social relationship 1.38a 2.35b 2.27b 91.147 < 0.001* 44.54 (19.83) 60.88 (18.58) 64.38 (18.12) 9.776 0.000*
 Environ 1.52a 2.28b 2.20b 58.045 < 0.001* 46.54 (13.43) 54.00 (12.90) 57.08 (16.81) 5.673 0.006*
 Overall QoL 1.46a 2.29b 2.25b 70.497 < 0.001* 43.07 (12.25) 52.15 (7.26) 52.56 (9.87) 8.674 0.002*
Within control group
 Depression 1.88a 2.00a 2.13a 3.082 0.214 4.24 (4.31) 5.40 (4.75) 6.16 (6.27) 0.924 0.384
 ART adherence 1.97a 1.84a 2.19b 32.947 < 0.001* 94.46 (4.33) 100.00 (0.00) 95.88 (2.28) 0.998 0.377
 Physical QoL 1.97a 1.83a 2.20b 11.230 0.004 50.41 (16.54) 47.41 (4.29) 52.04 (12.14) 1.048 0.358
 Psychological QOL 2.01a 1.94a 2.0a 1.102 0.576 56.56 (15.22) 54.26 (14.06) 55.44 (17.26) 0.191 0.780
 Social relationship 2.37a 1.51a 2.12b 58.482 < 0.001* 57.69 (17.31) 50.08 (18.15) 52.65 (22.50) 1.668 0.199
 Environ 2.04a 1.69a 2.27b 27.375 < 0.001* 50.85 (14.47) 45.77 (15.34) 50.85 (16.18) 1.412 0.253
 Overall QOL 2.11a 1.76b 2.12ac 13.149 0.001 50.23 (8.28) 45.77 (15.34) 50.00 (8.44) 1.882 0.180
  1. χ2: Chi-square from Friedman’s test; F: F-value from repeated measure ANOVA. NB: intention-to-treat data were log-transformed; Superscripts a, b & c indicates Wilcoxon post-hoc pair-wise comparison. The sameness of superscripts indicate no significant difference between pairs; while a difference of superscripts indicates significant differences between given pairs
  2. *: significant at alpha = 0.05