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Table 3 Clinical characteristics and quality of life at 3 months follow up between exercise and control groups comparing the effects of aerobic exercise on PLWHIV diagnosed with HAND

From: Effects of aerobic exercise on quality of life of people with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on antiretroviral therapy: a randomised controlled trial

Approach Intention-to-treat Per protocol
Variables Exercise
(n = 38)
MR (SE)
Control
(n = 35)
MR (SE)
F p Exercise (n = 24–32)
MR/x̅ (SD)
Control (n = 24–33)
MR/x̅(SD)
F p
ART Adherence 128.99a (5.61) 118.76a (5.79) 1.608 0.206 30.98 29.05 406.50 0.321
Depression (BDI) 98.78a (6.48) 124.21a (6.74) 7.406 0.007* 27.95 33.05 373.50 0.255
SPO2 40.45b (2.35) 36.92b (2.43) 1.085 0.298 28.26 24.87 293.50 0.410
Heart rate 3.17c (0.11) 2.91c (0.12) 2.726 0.100 73.30 (13.68) 70.71 (13.53) 0.679 0.500
SBP 17.44d (1.33) 13.40d (1.39) 4.418 0.036* 25.33 26.59 308.00 0.758
DBP 5.50d (0.42) 6.03d (0.44) 0.792 0.374 25.52 25.48 310.00 0.992
Physical QoL 130.47a (6.78) 107.77a (6.97) 5.470 0.020* 32.76 26.24 326.00 0.134
Psychological QOL 135.39a (6.80) 108.70a (7.09) 7.388 0.007* 32.08 27.84 372.50 0.338
Social relationship 62.35ae (4.80) 53.59ae (4.82) 1.659 0.199 33.33 25.67 309.50 0.081
Environment 128.04a (6.92) 111.72a (6.96) 2.765 0.097 58.24 (17.12) 50.76 (15.94) 1.722 0.091
Overall QOL 7.68af (0.46) 6.48af (0.47) 3.301 0.070 53.23 (9.62) 49.90 (8.23) 1.429 0.158
  1. x̅(SD): mean (standard deviation); BDI: Beck depression inventory; MR(SE): Mean rank (standard error); MWU: Man-Whitney test; t: t-value; Superscripts—a: controlled for baseline difference in ART adherence; b: controlled for baseline differences in SPO2, c: controlled for baseline differences in pulse rate; d: controlled for baseline differences in diastolic blood pressure; e: controlled for baseline differences in social relationship QoL; f: controlled for baseline differences in overall QoL
  2. *: significant at alpha = 0.05