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Table 2 The clinical characteristics and quality of life of PLWHIV diagnosed with HAND following a 12-week aerobic exercise programme

From: Effects of aerobic exercise on quality of life of people with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on antiretroviral therapy: a randomised controlled trial

Approach Intention-to-treat Per protocol
Variables Exercise (n = 38)
MR (SE)
Control (n = 38)
MR (SE)
MWU p Exercise
n = 24–32)
MR/x̅ (SE)
Control
(n = 24–33)
MR/x̅ (SE)
F p
Depression score 83.84a (6.40) 101.90a (5.91) 4.30 0.039* 22.56 32.44 231.00 0.020*
ART adherence 115.34a (6.27) 113.98a (6.26) 0.02 0.878 21.71 23.00 216.00 0.208
SPO2 3.24b (0.095) 2.77b (0.098) 11.54 0.001* 31.29 27.71 368.50 0.388
Heart rate 6.61c (0.43) 4.95c (0.45) 7.16 0.008* 75.98 (11.20) 71.20 (10.53) 1.690 0.096
Systolic BP 6.37d (0.44) 5.35d (0.45) 2.63 0.106 103.39 (13.73) 110.48 (12.17) − 2.030 0.047*
Diastolic BP 3.07d (0.11) 3.01d (0.11) 0.12 0.725 25.91 30.02 321.50 0.337
Physical QoL 131.78a (6.72) 100.53a (6.75) 10.75 0.001* 34.76 25.40 297.00 0.034*
Psychological QOL 127.59a (6.67) 101.95a (6.83) 7.22 0.008* 55.83 (13.79) 51.57 (15.85) 1.100 0.276
Social relationship QoL 19.63ae (1.23) 13.31ae (1.29) 12.62 0.266 35.84 23.16 236.50 0.004*
Environmental QoL 127.62a (6.61) 97.07a (6.69) 10.54 0.001* 53.97 (15.02) 46.17 (14.62) 2.003 0.050
Overall QoL 7.82af (0.43) 5.74af (0.44) 11.43 0.001* 51.83 (7.20) 45.93 (8.40) 2.889 0.005*
  1. Data are shown for the exercise and control groups immediately after the exercise programme
  2. x̅ (SD): mean (standard deviation); BDI: Beck depression inventory; MR(SE): Mean rank (standard error); MWU: Man–Whitney test; t: t-value; Superscripts—a: controlled for baseline difference in ART adherence; b: controlled for baseline differences in SPO2, c: controlled for baseline differences in pulse rate; d: controlled for baseline differences in diastolic blood pressure; e: controlled for baseline differences in social relationship QoL; f: controlled for baseline differences in overall QoL
  3. *: significant at alpha = 0.05