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Table 1 Barriers to TB case finding and retention in care and identified intervention strategies based on COM-B model and BCW framework among slum refugees in Kampala, Uganda

From: Developing strategies to address barriers for tuberculosis case finding and retention in care among refugees in slums in Kampala, Uganda: a qualitative study using the COM-B model

Behavioral determinant TB case finding and retention Suggested interventions BCW intervention strategies
Barriers
 a) Capability
  Psychological Limited awareness about TB Creating awareness for TB Education
  Physical Inadequate TB services
Lack of targeted TB prevention and control strategies for refugees
Lack of facilitation for health workers
  Training
Enablement
Environmental restructuring
 b) Opportunity
  Social Stigma and discrimination
Language barrier
Avoidant and uncooperative behaviour
Lack of collaboration and cooperation with family members, local leaders and across refugee camps
Implementing partner integrating TB control services
Working with refugee leaders
Availability of translators
Education
Persuasion
Enablement
Environmental restructuring
  Physical Poor living conditions
Refugees are mobile
  Education
Enablement
 c) Motivation
  Automatic Fear of discrimination and rejection
Fear to be tested for HIV and TB
  Education
Enablement
  Reflective Fear of long waiting time in the public health facilities
Lack of facilitation for health workers and working under risky conditions
Side effects of TB medicine
Integrate TB services with non-stigmatizing diseases
Facilitation of health workers
Enablement
Environmental restructuring