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Table 2 Incidence rates of AOM and 95% confidence intervals by PCV period among commercially insured children aged < 18 years, in episodes per 1000 patient-years (1998–2018)

From: Incidence of acute otitis media in children in the United States before and after the introduction of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines during 1998–2018

  All agesa Ages < 2
Periodb Overall Simple Recurrentc Overall Simple Recurrent
Pre-PCV7 263.2 (262.4; 264.0) 209.3 (208.3; 210.3) 65.4 (64.8; 66.0) 1170.2 (1164.3; 1176.2) 801.3 (794.5; 808.3) 426.6 (421.6; 431.6)
Early PCV7 209.4 (209.2; 209.7) 172.7 (172.5; 172.9) 36.7 (36.6; 36.8) 880.6 (879.1; 882.0) 647.9 (646.7; 649.2) 232.6 (231.9; 233.4)
Late PCV7 212.8 (212.6; 212.9) 175.8 (175.7; 176.0) 36.9 (36.9; 37.0) 854.9 (853.8; 856.0) 626.9 (626.0; 627.8) 228.0 (227.4; 228.6)
Early PCV13 210.0 (209.9; 210.2) 175.5 (175.4; 175.7) 34.5 (34.4; 34.6) 813.1 (812.0; 814.1) 602.5 (601.6; 603.5) 210.5 (210.0; 211.1)
Late PCV13 198.1 (197.9; 198.2) 165.1 (164.9; 165.2) 33.0 (33.0; 33.1) 768.8 (767.7; 769.8) 562.6 (561.8; 563.5) 206.1 (205.6; 206.7)
  Ages 2–4 Ages 5–17
Period Overall Simple Recurrent Overall Simple Recurrent
Pre-PCV7 547.4 (544.2; 550.6) 433.0 (429.0; 436.9) 144.3 (142.0; 146.6) 115.6 (114.9; 116.2) 106.4 (105.5; 107.2) 12.7 (12.4; 13.0)
Early PCV7 427.8 (427.0; 428.6) 350.3 (349.5; 351.0) 77.5 (77.2; 77.8) 91.2 (91.0; 91.4) 84.6 (84.5; 84.8) 6.6 (6.5; 6.6)
Late PCV7 432.9 (432.3; 433.5) 354.9 (354.4; 355.5) 77.9 (77.7; 78.2) 93.9 (93.8; 94.1) 87.6 (87.5; 87.7) 6.4 (6.3; 6.4)
Early PCV13 430.0 (429.4; 430.6) 355.1 (354.5; 355.6) 75.0 (74.7; 75.2) 99.0 (98.8; 99.1) 92.3 (92.2; 92.5) 6.6 (6.6; 6.7)
Late PCV13 410.3 (409.7; 410.9) 338.4 (337.9; 339.0) 71.9 (71.6; 72.1) 91.8 (91.7; 91.9) 86.2 (86.1; 86.3) 5.6 (5.5; 5.6)
  1. AOM acute otitis media, PY person-years
  2. aConfidence intervals were calculated using the Pearson method
  3. bTime periods are defined as follows: Pre-PCV7: 1998–1999; Early PCV7: 2001–2005; Late PCV7: 2006–2009; Early PCV13: 2011–2013; Late PCV13: 2014–2018. Years 2000 and 2010 are considered transition years and were excluded
  4. cRecurrent AOM was defined as having three or more episodes within a 6 months period or 4 or more episodes within a 12 month period, with at least one episode in the preceding 6 months