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Table 3 We fit generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors and quasi-poisson outcome distribution to estimate predictors of the total number of non-household contacts amongst all households surveyed in the study (N = 1967)

From: Longitudinal social contacts among school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic: the Bay Area Contacts among Kids (BACK) study

Participant characteristics Count Ratio (95% CI)
  Unadjusted Adjusted
   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Age     
 0–4 0.51 (0.44,0.6) 0.52 (0.44,0.60) 0.52 (0.44,0.61) 0.52 (0.45,0.6)
 5–12 0.48 (0.42,0.54) 0.49 (0.43,0.55) 0.49 (0.43,0.55) 0.49 (0.43,0.55)
 13–17 0.46 (0.39,0.54) 0.47 (0.40,0.55) 0.47 (0.41,0.55) 0.47 (0.4,0.55)
 18–39 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 40–64 0.98 (0.87,1.11) 1.02 (0.90,1.16) 1.03 (0.9,1.17) 1.02 (0.9,1.16)
 65 +  0.87 (0.52,1.48) 0.83 (0.48,1.42) 0.84 (0.48,1.43) 0.82 (0.47,1.41)
Race     
 White Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref..
 Asian 0.75 (0.64,0.86) 0.77 (0.67,0.90) 0.79 (0.68,0.92) 0.77 (0.67,0.89)
 Black or African American 1.08 (0.86,1.36) 0.98 (0.78,1.25) 0.96 (0.76,1.22) 0.99 (0.79,1.25)
 Some other race alone 0.80 (0.62,1.02) 0.65 (0.5,00.85) 0.66 (0.5,0.86) 0.66 (0.51,0.87)
 Two or more races 1.28 (0.93,1.75) 1.11 (0.81,1.52) 1.13 (0.83,1.55) 1.13 (0.83,1.55)
 Hispanic 1.24 (1.07,1.43) 1.17 (0.99,1.38) 1.16 (0.99,1.37) 1.14 (0.97,1.34)
 Household income ≥ $150,000 0.79 (0.69,0.89) 0.82 (0.72,0.94) 0.84 (0.73,0.96) 0.81 (0.71,0.93)
 Number of household members 0.98 (0.92,1.04) 1.07 (1.01,1.14) 1.08 (1.02,1.14) 1.07 (1.01,1.14)
Single Parent 1.45 (1.17,1.79) 1.48 (1.16,1.89) 1.45 (1.14,1.85) 1.47 (1.15,1.87)
 Wave     
 Wave 1–May 2020 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref
 Wave 2–Sep 2020 1.36 (1.15,1.6) 1.25 (1.06,1.47) 1.18 (1,1.4) 1.25 (1.06,1.47)
 Wave 3–Feb 2021 1.38 (1.17,1.61) 1.26 (1.08,1.48) 1.19 (1.01,1.41) 1.01 (0.84,1.21)
 More adults working from home1 0.71 (0.63,0.8)   0.81 (0.70,0.93)  
 Vaccinated household member 1.55 (1.33,1.79)    1.62 (1.35,1.94)
  1. We fit three adjusted models, each adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household income, number of household members, and study wave. We additionally included the predictor for whether more or less adults worked from home, and whether a household member was vaccinated in model 2 and 3, respectively
  2. 1Missing values of whether more adults work from home during shelter in place (3.9%; 76/1967%) were multiply imputed from five independent data-sets using Amelia II