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Table 3 Results of multiple regression analysis

From: Investigating the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination in Macao: implications for vaccination strategies

Model 1 (control variables only)
Variables Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients beta t Sig.
B Std. Error
(Constant) 1.439 0.440   3.272 0.001
Control variables      
Age (years old) 0.246 0.051 0.214 4.827 0.000
Gender − 0.244 0.117 − 0.085 − 2.081 0.038
Type of residency 0.319 0.075 0.184 4.230 0.000
Highest educational level 0.373 0.087 0.175 4.291 0.000
Being a parent 0.081 1.749 0.081 0.075 0.749
Estimated number of entries and exits to Macau in the next 6 months 0.222 0.059 0.154 3.733 0.000
F = 13.559, d.f. = 5, P < 0.001, R = 0.332, R2 = 0.110, adjusted R2 = 0.102
Model 2 (PMT constructs, and control variables)
Variables Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients beta t Sig.
B Std. Error
(Constant) 0.842 0.265   3.178 0.002
PMT constructs and other factors      
Perceived severity COVID-19 can be a life-threatening illness − 0.045 − 1.356 0.176 − 0.058 0.898
Perceived susceptability The risk for me to catch COVID-19 is high 0.126 0.037 0.111 3.395 0.001
Maladaptive response rewards If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to worry about the safety of the vaccine − 0.140 0.035 − 0.134 − 3.952 0.000
If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to spend time getting vaccinated − 0.062 − 1.414 0.158 − 0.061 0.520
If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to spend money getting vaccinated 0.088 0.043 0.069 2.063 0.040
Self efficacy I am confident about my ability to make an informed decision about COVID-19 vaccination 0.060 1.247 0.213 0.054 0.431
I have the necessary information to decide whether to vaccinate against COVID-19 vaccination 0.132 0.049 0.107 2.704 0.007
I know how to register to get COVID-19 vaccination −0 .036 − 0.749 0.454 − 0.032 0.422
I am able to make arrangement to get COVID-19 vaccination 0.499 0.046 0.430 10.803 0.000
Response efficacy Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the symptoms if ever I contracted the disease 0.041 0.861 0.390 0.037 0.431
Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the severity of symptoms if ever I contracted the disease − 0.003 − 0.048 0.961 − 0.002 0.289
Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the risk of death if ever I contracted the disease 0.182 0.041 0.155 4.417 0.000
Response cost It is likely that I will have serious side-effects that I cannot bear from COVID-19 vaccination − 0.210 0.038 − 0.182 − 5.513 0.000
Control variables      
Age (years old) 0.057 1.727 0.085 0.074 0.901
Gender − 0.022 − 0.678 0.498 − 0.029 0.933
Type of residency 0.057 1.761 0.079 0.075 0.938
Highest educational level − 0.002 − 0.045 0.964 − 0.002 0.900
Being a parent 0.045 1.394 0.164 0.060 0.942
Estimated number of entries and exits to Macau in the next 6 months 0.133 0.046 0.092 2.872 0.004
F = 57.402, d.f. = 8, P < 0.001, R = 0.677, R2 = 0.458, adjusted R2 = 0.450
Model 3 (PMT constructs and other factors, and control variables)
Variables Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients beta t Sig
B Std. Error
(Constant) 0.057 0.271   0.209 0.834
PMT constructs and other factors      
Perceived Severity COVID-19 can be a life-threatening illness − 0.033 − 1.124 0.261 − 0.048 0.911
Perceived susceptability The risk for me to catch COVID-19 is high 0.086 0.033 0.076 2.607 0.009
Maladaptive response rewards If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to worry about the safety of the vaccine − 0.085 0.030 − 0.082 − 2.808 0.005
If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to spend time getting vaccinated − 0.012 − 0.374 0.708 − 0.016 0.768
If I do not get a COVID-19 vaccination, I will not have to spend money getting vaccinated 0.041 1.386 0.166 0.059 0.880
Self efficacy I am confident about my ability to make an informed decision about COVID-19 vaccination 0.064 1.819 0.069 0.078 0.631
I have the necessary information to decide whether to vaccinate against COVID-19 vaccination 0.051 1.412 0.159 0.061 0.603
I know how to register to get COVID-19 vaccination 0.016 0.403 0.687 0.017 0.470
I am able to make arrangement to get COVID-19 vaccination 0.386 0.040 0.333 9.666 0.000
Response efficacy Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the symptoms if ever I contracted the disease − 0.018 − 0.541 0.589 − 0.023 0.672
Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the severity of symptoms if ever I contracted the disease − 0.014 − 0.429 0.668 − 0.018 0.683
Having a COVID-19 vaccination would help reduce the risk of death if ever I contracted the disease 0.006 0.192 0.848 0.008 0.692
Response cost It is likely that I will have serious side-effects that I cannot bear from COVID-19 vaccination − 0.143 0.035 − 0.124 − 4.139 0.000
Social attitudes Getting COVID-19 vaccination helps to reduce the risk of my family contracting COVID-19 0.051 1.384 0.167 0.059 0.564
Getting COVID-19 vaccination helps to prevent the diffusion of COVID-19 in the community 0.003 0.071 0.943 0.003 0.471
Social norm I consider getting COVID-19 vaccination a social responsibility 0.393 0.044 0.326 8.939 0.000
People I know have been already received COVID-19 vaccination 0.003 0.094 0.925 0.004 0.648
Most people I know would expect me to get COVID-19 vaccination 0.126 0.039 0.114 3.236 0.001
Past experience I have bad experiences with other types of vaccines before − 0.046 − 1.559 0.119 − 0.067 0.901
Information seeking behaviour I have actively sought information about COVID-19 vaccination 0.040 1.206 0.228 0.052 0.697
I rely on the government (such as the Health Bureau) for accurate information about COVID-19 vaccination − 0.018 − 0.594 0.553 − 0.026 0.810
I rely on healthcare professionals (such as doctors, pharmacists, nurses) for accurate information about COVID-19 vaccination 0.008 0.262 0.793 0.011 0.834
I rely on online sources (such as internet, social media) for accurate information about COVID-19 vaccination − 0.080 0.038 − 0.065 − 2.095 0.037
I rely on my family and friends for accurate information about COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination − 0.006 − 0.196 0.845 − 0.008 0.865
Facilitating factors I might have a stronger intention to take COVID-19 vaccination if people I know have done so 0.025 0.691 0.490 0.030 0.591
I might have a stronger intention to take COVID-19 vaccination if that somehow helps to lift travel restrictions − 0.031 − 0.828 0.408 − 0.036 0.543
I might have a stronger intention to take COVID-19 vaccination if there is a rewarding system such as time off from work 0.160 0.030 0.169 5.345 0.000
I might have a stronger intention to take COVID-19 vaccination if there is financial incentive 0.060 1.255 0.210 0.054 0.337
Control variables      
Age (years old) 0.090 0.034 0.078 2.627 0.009
Gender − 0.045 − 1.583 0.114 − 0.068 0.963
Type of residency 0.047 1.546 0.123 0.066 0.820
Highest educational level 0.007 0.237 0.813 0.010 0.894
Being a parent 0.016 0.500 0.617 0.021 0.753
Estimated number of entries and exits to Macau in the next 6 months 0.036 1.249 0.212 0.054 0.914
F = 82.923, d.f. = 9, P < 0.001, R = 0.761, R2 = 0.579, adjusted R2 = 0.572