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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by lifestyle score categorya

From: The association between a lifestyle score, socioeconomic status, and COVID-19 outcomes within the UK Biobank cohort

  Most healthy (score = 0–2) Moderate healthy (score = 3–5) Least healthy (score = 6–9)
Total N 196,380 141,062 6408
Mean (SD) age in March 2020 66.44 (8.03) 65.94 (8.19) 64.95 (8.13)
Male 80,137 (40.8) 72,777 (51.6) 3522 (55.0)
Ethnicity    
 White 188,366 (95.9) 133,841 (94.9) 5962 (93.0)
 South Asian 3241 (1.7) 2350 (1.7) 97 (1.5)
 Black 1914 (1.0) 2338 (1.7) 175 (2.7)
 Chinese 460 (0.2) 501 (0.4) 35 (0.5)
 Mixed 996 (0.5) 951 (0.7) 59 (0.9)
 Others 1403 (0.7) 1081 (0.8) 80 (1.2)
Income, £/year    
 Greater than 100,000 14,779 (7.5) 6199 (4.4) 49 (0.8)
 52,000 to 100,000 48,652 (24.8) 26,446 (18.7) 560 (8.7)
 31,000 to 51,999 54,170 (27.6) 36,571 (25.9) 1188 (18.5)
 18,000 to 30,999 46,612 (23.7) 35,916 (25.5) 1657 (25.9)
 Less than 18,000 32,167 (16.4) 35,930 (25.5) 2954 (46.1)
Education attainment    
 College or University degree 93,224 (47.5) 45,945 (32.6) 955 (14.9)
 A levels/AS levels or equivalent 27,011 (13.8) 18,552 (13.2) 634 (9.9)
 O levels/GCSEs or equivalent 43,979 (22.4) 37,464 (26.6) 1694 (26.4)
 SEs or equivalent 9610 (4.9) 10,753 (7.6) 750 (11.7)
 None of the above 22,556 (11.5) 28,348 (20.1) 2375 (37.1)
Mean (SD) deprivation indexb − 1.68 (2.84) − 1.14 (3.13) 0.76 (3.59)
Smoking status    
 Never 118,652 (60.4) 72,756 (51.6) 1573 (24.5)
 Previous 71,236 (36.3) 45,115 (32.0) 1112 (17.4)
 Current 6492 (3.3) 23,191 (16.4) 3723 (58.1)
Consumes alcohol daily or almost daily 10,205 (5.2) 23,011 (16.3) 2602 (40.6)
Physically inactive 21,605 (16.9) 14,404 (18.8) 514 (20.9)
Mean (SD) TV viewing, hours/day 2.24 (1.23) 3.19 (1.66) 4.73 (2.05)
Mean (SD) sleeping duration, hours/day 7.30 (0.87) 6.96 (1.18) 6.49 (1.57)
Sleep duration category    
 < 7 h 26,228 (13.4) 51,484 (36.5) 4324 (67.5)
 7–9 h 169,074 (86.1) 86,183 (61.1) 1624 (25.3)
 > 9 h 1,078 (0.5) 3,395 (2.4) 460 (7.2)
Fruit/vegetable intake < 400 g/day 109,753 (55.9) 124,726 (88.4) 6224 (97.1)
Red meat intake > 3 portions/week 10,622 (5.4) 33,201 (23.5) 3222 (50.3)
Processed meat intake > 1/week 51,880 (26.4) 95,404 (67.6) 5791 (90.4)
Oily fish intake < 1/week 28,568 (14.5) 72,367 (51.3) 5177 (80.8)
Long term condition count    
 0 76,779 (39.1) 48,774 (34.6) 1572 (24.5)
 1 66,145 (33.7) 46,001 (32.6) 1840 (28.7)
 2 33,849 (17.2) 26,733 (19.0) 1433 (22.4)
 3 13,254 (6.7) 12,286 (8.7) 846 (13.2)
 4 4373 (2.2) 4718 (3.3) 429 (6.7)
5 or more 1980 (1.0) 2550 (1.8) 288 (4.5)
  1. Numbers are n (%) unless otherwise specified
  2. aLifestyle score comprised of nine factors. One point was awarded for each unhealthy factor: current smoker; alcohol consumed daily or almost daily; physically inactive; ≥ 4 h/day of television viewing time; < 7 h or > 9 h of sleep/day; < 400 g of fruits and vegetables/day; less than one portion of oily fish/week; more than three portions of red meat/week; more than one portion of processed meat/week
  3. bTownsend derivation index (z-scores) where higher numbers denote higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation