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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin and procalcitonin in non-infectious organ failure, sepsis, and septic shock: a prospective observational study according to the Sepsis-3 definitions

Variables Non-infectious organ failure (n = 142) Sepsis (n = 141) Septic shock (n = 137) p value
Age, median (IQR) 66 (51–80) 76 (67–83) 77 (62–83) < 0.001
Male, n (%) 85 (56) 85 (62) 74 (57) 0.519
Charlson comorbidity index 4 (3–5) 3 (3–5) 5 (4–6) 0.182
Underlying diseases, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 37 (26) 54 (38) 51 (37) 0.055
 Hypertension 60 (42) 78 (55) 66 (48) 0.089
 Malignancy 23 (16) 23 (16) 19 (14) 0.818
 Chronic liver disease 9 (6) 8 (6) 11 (8) 0.720
 Chronic kidney disease 7 (5) 16 (11) 11 (8) 0.141
 Cardiovascular disease 10 (7) 15 (11) 13 (10) 0.560
Site of infection, n (%)
 Respiratory   84 (60) 81 (59) 0.713
 Genitourinary   35 (25) 33 (24) 0.367
 Gastrointestinal   14 (10) 13 (10) 0.386
 Others   13 (9) 15 (11) 0.281
Positive blood culture, n (%)   60 (43) 62 (45) 0.412
APACHE II score, median (IQR) 23 (18–29) 26 (22–32) 29 (25–33) < 0.001
SOFA score, median (IQR) 6 (3–8) 6 (5–8) 10 (8–12) < 0.001
NEWS, median (IQR) 9 (7–11) 10 (8–12) 11 (9–14) < 0.001
MEWS, median (IQR) 5 (4–7) 6 (5–7) 7 (6–9) < 0.001
WBC (× 109/L), median (IQR) 11.30 (8.17–14.63) 11.94 (8.24–17.06) 11.22 (6.68–20.04) 0.343
CRP (mg/dL), median (IQR) 0.53 (0.13–2.42) 7.50 (3.33–16.66) 10.07 (3.99–20.70) < 0.001
Procalcitonin (ng/mL), median (IQR) 0.10 (0.05–0.25) 0.98 (0.35–4.25) 4.22 (0.88–21.02) < 0.001
Presepsin (pg/mL), median (IQR) 286 (170–417) 792 (450–1273) 1287 (589–2366) < 0.001
Lactate (mmol/L), median (IQR) 2.0 (1.4–4.6) 2.2 (1.5–4.9) 4.4 (2.4–8.1) < 0.001
Creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 1.3 (0.9–2.5) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) < 0.001
Bilirubin (mg/dL), median (IQR) 0.6 (0.4–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.003
Platelet (× 1000/μL), median (IQR) 200 (139–286) 206 (142–301) 185 (102–258) 0.002
Length of hospital stay (days), median (IQR) 8 (3–15) 8 (3–14) 11 (4–17) 0.243
Length of ICU stay (days), median (IQR) 4 (2–5) 4 (2–6) 5 (2–7) 0.218
7-day mortality 11 (7.2) 11 (8.0) 33 (25.2) < 0.001
14-day mortality 16 (10.5) 19 (13.9) 40 (30.5) < 0.001
30-day mortality 20 (13.2) 22 (16.1) 47 (35.9) < 0.001
90-day mortality 21 (13.8) 33 (24.1) 52 (39.7) < 0.001
  1. IQR interquartile range, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA sepsis-related organ failure assessment, NEWS National Early Warning Score, MEWS Modified Early Warning Score, WBC white blood cell, CRP C-reactive protein, ICU intensive care unit