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Table 5 Among all patients who received antibiotics: comparison of the characteristics of the patients classified as having a bacterial pneumonia by the algorithm (combining respiratory rate and procalcitonin) to those classified as not having a bacterial pneumonia

From: Clinical sign and biomarker-based algorithm to identify bacterial pneumonia among outpatients with lower respiratory tract infection in Tanzania

  Patients received antibiotics during routine care  
  Algorithm classify patients as not having a bacterial pneumonia (does not recommend antibiotics)
(n = 27)
Algorithm classify patients as having a bacterial pneumonia (recommends antibiotics)
(n = 28)
P value
Age, years 32 (29–42) 28 (23–36) 0.032
Female sex 11 (41%) 14 (50%) 0.491
HIV-1 7 (26%) 16 (57%) 0.019
Sepsis / septic shocka 4 (15%) 10 (36%) 0.121
Symptoms and signs  
Cough 24 (89%) 27 (96%) 0.352
Dyspnoea 7 (26%) 13 (46%) 0.114
Chest pain 8 (30%) 7 (25%) 0.700
Respiratory rate, /min 25 (23–27) 35 (26–38) 0.000
Abnormal auscultation 10 (37%) 7 (25%) 0.334
Saturation, % 96 (95–97) 96 (94–97) 0.129
Systolic BP, mmHg 121 (113–132) 102 (96–114) 0.000
Heart rate, /min 105 (87–113) 121 nn 0.002
Pneumonia clinical scores  
CRB-65 scoreb ≥ 2 1 (4%) 9 (32%) 0.012
Van Vugt-scorec, high 15 (56%) 24 (86%) 0.019
Diagnosis
Bronchitis 17 (63%) 11 (40%) 0.079
Viral pneumonia 9 (33%) 2 (7%) 0.020
Bacterial pneumonia 1 (4%) 15 (54%) 0.000
Management and outcome  
Admission 4 (15%) 12 (43%) 0.037
28-day mortality 1 (4%) 2 (7%) 1.000
  1. Bold values indicate a significant difference between the groups
  2. Data are number (%) of patients or median (interquartile range)
  3. aSepsis/septic shock: sofa score of ≥ 2 points. bCRB-65 score defined as one point for each of the following: Glasgow Coma Score < 15, respiratory rate ≥ 30/min, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤ 60 mmHg, age ≥ 65. cVan Vugt score was defined as one point for each of the following: absence of runny nose, presence of dyspnea, presence of crackles or diminished breath by auscultations, temperature ≥ 37.8 °C or heart rate > 100/min. High score was defined as ≥ 3 points