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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, vital signs, management and outcome of patients according to the diagnosis

From: Clinical sign and biomarker-based algorithm to identify bacterial pneumonia among outpatients with lower respiratory tract infection in Tanzania

  All (n = 110) Bacterial CAP (n = 17) Viral CAP (n = 8) CAP of unknown origin (n = 7) Bronchitis (n = 78) p-value
Age, years 29 (23–39) 28 (24–35) 31 (29–51) 33 (32–64) 29 (21–38) 0.051
Female sex 58 (53) 8 (47) 3 (38) 2 (29) 45 (58) 0.338
HIV-1infection 36 (33) 13 (76) 4 (50) 1 (14) 18 (23) 0.000
Co-infection 22 (20) 2 (12) 1 (13) 1 (14) 18 (23) 0.658
- Malaria 7 (6.4) 1 (5.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 (7.7) 0.739
- Dengue 7 (6.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (9.0) 0.381
- Other 9 (8.2)a 1 (5.9) 1 (13) 1 (14) 6 (7.7) 0.875
Sepsis / septic shockb 27 (25) 5 (35) 1 (13) 1 (14) 20 (26) 0.731
Symptoms and signs  
Cough 103 (94) 17 (100) 8 (100) 6 (86) 72 (92) 0.446
Dyspnoea 27 (25) 6 (35) 1 (13) 2 (29) 18 (23) 0.606
Chest pain, 25 (23) 4 (24) 3 (38) 2 (29) 16 (21) 0.716
Respiratory rate, /min 25 (23–29) 34 (26–37) 26 (25–34) 24 (23–26) 24 (22–26) 0.000
Abnormal auscultation 29 (26) 8 (47) 2 (25) 2 (29) 17 (22) 0.202
Saturation, % 97 (96–98) 95 (93–96) 96 (94–96) 97 (96–98) 97 (96–98) 0.000
Systolic BP, mmHg 117 (104–123) 100 (97–107) 119 (109–123) 126 (120–132) 118 (104–124) 0.000
Heart rate, /min 108 (92–120) 129 (117–138) 115 (104–120) 98 (82–108) 106 (89–115) 0.000
Pneumonia clinical scores  
CRB-65 scorec ≥ 2 12 (11) 5 (29) 1 (13) 0 (0) 6 (7.7) 0.053
Van Vugt-scored, high 68 (62) 16 (94) 6 (75) 4 (57) 42 (54) 0.016
Management and outcome  
Admission 20 (18) 7 (41) 2 (25) 2 (29) 9 (12) 0.028
Antibiotic prescription 55 (50) 16 (94) 7 (88) 4 (57) 28 (36) 0.000
28-day mortality 6 (5.5) 2 (12) 1 (13) 0 (0) 3 (3.9) 0.411
  1. Bold values indicate a significant difference between the groups
  2. Data are number (%) of patients or median (interquartile range)
  3. Bacterial CAP: community-acquired pneumonia with a bacterial aetiology detected; viral CAP: community-acquired pneumonia with a viral aetiology detected. CAP of unknown origin: community-acquired pneumonia without microbiological documentation
  4. a1 adenovirus gastro-enteritis, 3 urogenital infections, 2 West nile, 1 intraabdominal infection, 2 ricketsioses, 2 gastroenteritis of unknown origin. bSepsis or septic shock defined as a sofa score of ≥ 2 points. cCRB-65 score defined as one point for each of the following: Glasgow Coma Score < 15, respiratory rate ≥ 30/min, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤ 60 mmHg, age ≥ 65. dVan Vugt score was defined as one point for each of the following: absence of runny nose, presence of dyspnea, presence of crackles or diminished breath by auscultations, temperature ≥ 37.8 °C or heart rate > 100/min. High score was defined as ≥ 3 points