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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients

From: Comparison of mortality risk evaluation tools efficacy in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Variable All sample, n = 249 Survivors, n = 146 (58.6%) Non-survivors, n = 103 (41.4%) p value
Demographics
Gender     
 Female 92 (36.9) 52 (35.6) 40 (38.8) 0.604
 Male 157 (63.1) 94 (64.4) 63 (61.2)
Age (years) 61.32 ± 13.30 57.74 ± 13.60 66.39 ± 11.09  < 0.001
Age groups (% within group)    
 < 50 years 42 (16.9) 35 (83.3) 7 (16.7)
 50–59 years 75 (30.1) 48 (64.0) 27 (36.0)
 60–69 years 63 (25.3) 36 (57.1) 27 (42.9)
 70–79 years 47 (18.9) 19 (40.4) 28 (59.6)
 > 80 years 22 (8.8) 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6)
Comorbidities
Obesity 72 (28.9) 43 (29.5) 29 (28.2) 0.824
Hypertension 189 (75.9) 103 (70.5) 86 (83.5) 0.019
Chronic cardiac disease 116 (46.6) 55 (37.7) 61 (59.2) 0.001
CKD 87 (34.9) 38 (26.0) 49 (47.6)  < 0.001
Immunosuppression 30 (12.0) 17 (11.6) 13 (12.6) 0.815
Diabetes 81 (32.5) 51 (34.9) 30 (29.1) 0.336
COPD 26 (10.4) 13 (8.9) 13 (12.6) 0.345
Asthma 13 (5.2) 8 (5.5) 5 (4.9) 0.827
Clinical signs upon admission
Fever 36.8 [36.6–37.4] 36.9 [36.6–37.4] 36.7 [36.5–37.5] 0.169
MAP 93.1 ± 16.2 94.5 ± 13.0 91.2 ± 19.9 0.117
Heart rate 84 [72–100] 81 [72–94] 88.5 [74–104.75] 0.043
RR 22 [20–27] 22 [18–26] 25 [20–30] 0.001
SpO2 91 [86–95] 93 [89–96] 88 [82–93]  < 0.001
PaO2/FiO2 123.6 [70.7–192.0] 161.5 [80.2–217.8] 84.0 [59.8–146.0]  < 0.001
Mortality risk scores
SOFA 3 [2–6] 3 [2–5] 5 [3–9]  < 0.001
Mortality risk % (SOFA) 10 [3.8–4.5] 10 [3.8–10] 10 [3.3–22.5]  
SMR (SOFA) 4.14    
SAPS II 25 [18–34] 21 [16–29] 32 [24–41]  < 0.001
Mortality risk % (SAPS II) 10 [10–10] 10 [10–10] 25 [10–25]  
SMR (SAPS II) 4.14    
APACHE II 12 [9–16] 10 [7–13] 15 [11–15]  < 0.001
Mortality risk % (APACHE II) 14.6 [9.9–23.5] 11.3 [7.6–16.5] 21 [12.9–21]  
SMR (APACHE II) 2.84    
4C Mortality 10 [7–13] 8 [6–11] 12 [9–15]  < 0.001
Mortality risk % (4C Mortality) 39.3 [7.7–52.1] 7.7 [4.5–44.5] 44.5[39.3–61.5]  
SMR (4C Mortality) 1.05    
Clinical course
MV 117 (47.0) 80 (77.7) 37 (25.3)  < 0.001
AKI 111 (44.6) 83 (80.6) 28 (19.2)  < 0.001
LOS in ICU 9 [4–16] 7 [4–14] 13 [5–17] 0.01
LOS in hospital 17 [12–28] 22 [14–31] 15 [9.75–20.25]  < 0.001
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, MAP mean arterial pressure, RR respiratory rate, MV mechanical ventilation, AKI acute kidney injury, ICU intensive care unit, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, 4C Mortality 4C Mortality Score, SMR standardized mortality ratio, LOS length of stay