Skip to main content

Table 4 Potential risk factors on knowledge and etiology factors associated with IgM + seropositivity of Leptospira infections in the refugee population (N = 433); *significant at 0.05

From: Prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and associated risk factors in the Malaysian refugee communities

Factors % 95% CL OR (95% CI) P-value
Prior knowledge on Leptospirosis
 Basic knowledge
  No (n = 403) 22.1 17.4–27.6 1.417 (0.527, 3.809) 0.475
  Yes (n = 30) 16.7 6.8–34.8 1.000  
 Disease-related mortality
  Yes (n = 26) 23.1 10.6–42.2 1.088 (0.424, 2.791) 0.862
  No (n = 407) 21.6 16.9–27.1 1.000  
 Disease by rat transmission
  No (n = 396) 22.2 17.5–27.7 1.476 (0.597, 3.652) 0.382
  Yes (n = 37) 16.2 7.3–30.8 1.000  
Etiological factors
 Presence of rats*
  Yes (n = 282) 25.5 21.3–30.2 2.010 (1.189, 3.400) 0.007
  No (n = 151) 14.6 9.4–21.6 1.000  
 Contact with rat urine
  No (n = 377) 21.8 17.2–27.0 1.019 (0.514, 2.019) 0.956
  Yes (n = 56) 21.4 14.0–31.1 1.000  
 Walking in bare feet*
  Yes (n = 137) 27.7 21.1–35.5 1.645 (1.024, 2.642) 0.041
  No (n = 296) 18.9 15.1–23.4 1.000  
 Involvement in flooding
  Yes (n = 65) 27.7 18.7–38.5 1.471 (0.808, 2.679) 0.215
  No (n = 368) 20.7 16.2–25.8 1.000  
 Water recreation visits*
  Yes (n = 139) 28.1 21.3–35.9 1.695 (1.057, 2.717) 0.030
  No (n = 294) 18.7 14.9–23.2 1.000  
  1. *Significance values from Log-Linear Models