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Table 3 Potential risk factors on knowledge and etiology factors associated with IgG + seropositivity of Leptospira infections in the refugee population (univariate analysis; N = 433); *significant at 0.05

From: Prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and associated risk factors in the Malaysian refugee communities

Factors % 95% CL OR (95% CI) P-value
Prior knowledge on leptospirosis
 Basic knowledge*
  Yes (n = 30) 13.3 4.7–29.8 6.735 (1.943, 23.341) 0.008
  No (n = 403) 2.2 1.0–5.0 1.000  
 Disease-related mortality*
  Yes (n = 26) 11.5 3.2–30.4 5.178 (1.333, 20.115) 0.038
  No (n = 407) 2.5 1.1–5.3 1.000  
 Transmission by rats
  Yes (n = 37) 5.4 1.2–17.3 2.000 (0.426, 9.384) 0.414
  No (n = 396) 2.8 1.3–5.6 1.000  
Etiological factors
 Presence of rats
  No (n = 151) 4.0 1.6–8.8 1.626 (0.536, 4.927) 0.395
  Yes (n = 282) 2.5 1.3–4.7 1.000  
 Contact with rat urine
  Yes (n = 56) 3.6 1.1–9.7 1.232 (0.266, 5.711) 0.794
  No (n = 377) 2.9 1.5–5.7 1.000  
 Walking bare feet
  No (n = 296) 4.1 2.4–6.7 5.746 (0.740, 44.649) 0.496
  Yes (n = 137) 0.7 0.1–3.8 1.000  
 Involvement in flooding
  Yes (n = 65) 4.6 1.5–11.9 1.732 (0.464, 6.472) 0.436
  No (n = 368) 2.7 1.3–5.4 1.000  
 Water recreation visits
  Yes (n = 139) 3.6 1.5–8.0 1.334 (0.428, 4.155) 0.623
  No (n = 294) 2.7 1.4–5.0 1.000  
  1. *Significance values from Log-Linear Models