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Table 2 Potential risk factors on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with IgM + seropositivity of Leptospira infections in the refugee population (univariate analysis; N = 433); *significant at 0.05

From: Prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and associated risk factors in the Malaysian refugee communities

Factors % 95% CL OR (95% CI) P-value
Socio-demographic factors
 Sex*
  Female (n = 210) 27.1 23.3–31.3 1.873 (1.175, 2.984) 0.008
  Male (n = 223) 16.6 13.4–20.3 1.000  
 Age
  < 12 (n = 151) 20.5 14.4–28.1 1.172 (0.657, 2.094) 0.191
  12–18 (n = 138) 26.8 20.1–34.5 1.663 (0.943, 2.933)  
  > 18 (n = 144) 18.1 12.4–25.3 1.000  
 Ethnicity*
  Rohingya (n = 107) 40.2 33.2–47.4 4.507 (2.530, 8.028)  < 0.00001
  Pakistan (n = 34) 29.4 17.7–44.2 2.795 (1.191, 6.561)  
  Chin (n = 25) 24.0 11.0–43.9 2.118 (0.769, 5.834)  
  Rakhine (n = 63) 17.5 10.4–27.4 1.419 (0.651, 3.093)  
  Kachin (n = 185) 13.0 7.5–20.5 1.000  
  Syrian (n = 19) 0.0 0.0–17.6   
 Education attainment
  No (n = 38) 31.6 18.7–47.3 1.762 (0.852, 3.641) 0.138
  Yes (n = 395) 20.8 16.2–26.1 1.000  
 Accommodation type
  Squatter (n = 26) 23.1 10.6–42.2 1.159 (0.435, 3.093) 0.884
  Housing area (n = 227) 22.5 18.8–26.6 1.120 (0.695, 1.805)  
  Shop houses (n = 180) 20.6 13.8–28.9 1.000  
Lifestyle factors
 Eating by hand*
  Yes (n = 281) 26.3 22.0–31.1 2.359 (1.375, 4.049) 0.001
  No (n = 152) 13.2 8.2–19.9 1.000  
 Drinking water sources
  Filter (n = 267) 24.7 20.7–29.3 1.618 (0.989, 2.648) 0.051
  Boil (n = 166) 16.9 11.1–24.7 1.000  
 Proper waste disposal area
  Yes (n = 359) 22.6 18.1–27.8 1.367 (0.715, 2.613) 0.868
  No (n = 74) 17.6 10.1–28.4 1.000  
 Frequency of handwashing
  < 3 times (n = 39) 20.5 10.3–36.3 1.010 (0.435, 2.344) 0.161
  3–5 (n = 168) 23.8 16.9–32.3 1.223 (0.756, 1.977)  
  > 5 times (n = 226) 20.4 16.8–24.3 1.000  
 Pet ownership*
  Yes (n = 254) 26.4 22.3–30.9 2.017 (1.229, 3.310) 0.004
  No (n = 179) 15.1 9.3–22.9 1.000  
  1. *Significance values from Log-Linear Models