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Table 1 Potential risk factors on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with IgG + seropositivity of Leptospira infections in the refugee population (univariate analysis; N = 433); *significant at 0.05

From: Prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and associated risk factors in the Malaysian refugee communities

Factors % 95% CL OR (95% CI) P-value
Socio-demographic factors
 Sex
  Male (n = 223) 3.6 2.2–5.7 1.526 (0.491, 4.740) 0.460
  Female (n = 210) 2.4 1.3–4.2 1.000  
 Age*
  > 18 (n = 144) 5.6 2.8–10.6 1.565 (0.499, 4.905) 0.003
  12–18 (n = 138) 3.6 1.5–8.0 1.000  
  < 12 (n = 151) 0.0 0.0–2.8   
 Ethnicity*
  Kachin (n = 185) 6.5 3.1–12.8 4.301 (0.548, 33.761) 0.003
  Rakhine (n = 63) 1.6 0.2–7.4 1.000  
  Rohingya (n = 107) 0.0 0.0–2.0   
  Syrian (n = 19) 0.0 0.0–17.6   
  Pakistan (n = 34) 0.0 0.0–8.2   
  Chin (n = 25) 0.0 0.0–13.4   
 Education attainment
  Yes (n = 395) 3.3 1.7–6.2   0.297
  No (n = 38) 0.0 0.0–9.0   
 Accommodation type
  Shop houses (n = 180) 3.3 1.1–8.5 1.084 (0.358, 3.283) 0.437
  Housing area (n = 227) 3.1 1.8–5.1 1.000  
  Squatter (n = 26) 0.0 0.0–12.9   
Lifestyle factors
 Eating habits by hand
  No (n = 152) 4.6 2.0–9.6 2.213 (0.730, 6.706) 0.161
  Yes (n = 281) 2.1 1.1–4.2 1.000  
 Drinking water sources
  Boil (n = 166) 3.6 1.3–8.6 1.393 (0.460, 4.218) 0.560
  Filter (n = 267) 2.6 1.4–4.8 1.000  
 Proper waste disposal area
  Yes (n = 359) 3.6 1.9–6.5   0.201
  No (n = 74) 0.0 0.0–5.5   
 Frequency of hand washing
  > 5 times (n = 226) 3.5 2.2–5.7 1.196 (0.384, 3.724) 0.621
  3–5 (n = 168) 3.0 1.0–7.7 1.000  
  < 3 times (n = 39) 0.0 0.0–9.1   
 Pet ownership*
  No (n = 179) 6.1 2.9–12.1 8.250 (1.806, 37.693) 0.001
  Yes (n = 254) 0.8 0.3–2.2 1.000  
  1. *Significance values from Log-Linear Models