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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized clinical trials of convalescent plasma treatment in COVID-19

From: Association between convalescent plasma treatment and mortality in COVID-19: a collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Trial acronym and/or registration number Location Status Blinding Control type N included (N planned) Mortality % Planned mortality time pointa Patient setting Plasma titer, assay (timing of intervention) Donor severity (HLA antibody status)
Unpublished           
LIFESAVER (NCT04374526) Italy Recruiting None Standard of care 12 (182) 16.67% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Low titer: ≥ 1:200 S-RBD IgG, EUROIMMUN
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
RECOVER (EUCTR2020-001632-10-DE) Germany Recruiting None Standard of care 90 (174) 13.33% 28, 56 and 84 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:80, neutralizing antibody assay
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Mild to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
LACCPT (PACTR202006760881890) Nigeria Recruiting Participant, Care Provider Placebo (normal saline) 22 (100) 59.09% 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Mild to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
CPC-SARS (NCT04405310) Mexico Recruiting Participant, Care Provider Placebo (hartmann plus albumine) 42 (80) 28.57% 15 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: > 1000 S-RBD IgG, > 1:32 neutralizing, separate in-house assays
(Maximum was > 14 days after symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04442191 United States Recruiting Participant, Care Provider Placebo (fresh frozen plasma) 14 (50) 7.14% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Low-titer: S-RBD IgG, Abbott Architect IgG
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Not excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04385199 United States Recruiting None Standard of care 30 (30) 16.67% NR Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(NA)
NCT04403477 (NCT04403477)b Bangladesh Recruiting None Standard of care 30 (60) 18.33% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Low titer: ≥ 1:160 S-RBD IgG, EUROIMMUN
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
PLACO-COVID (NCT04428021) Italy Active, not recruiting Participant, Care Provider, Outcomes Assessor Standard of care 120 (180)c 15.83% 30 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Mild to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
REMAP-CAP (NCT02735707) International Terminated None Standard of care 2014 (N/A) 34.26% 90 days ICU Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:100 neutralizing or equivalent. In the UK: EUROIMMUN S/C ≥ 6
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
ASCOT (NCT04483960) Australia and New Zealand Terminated None Standard of care 33 (N/A) 9.09% 28 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:80, neutralizing assay by Walker et al. (2021)
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
Co-CLARITY (NCT04567173) Philippines Recruiting None Standard of care 25 (136) 0.00% 28 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Low titer: Ortho VITROS S/C ≥ 5
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04528368 Brazil Recruiting None Standard of care 16 (60) 0.00% 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Low titer: ≥ 1:320 S-RBD IgG, in-house assay
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
CAPSID (NCT04433910) Germany Recruiting None Standard of care 5 (106) 0.00% 21, 35 and 60 days ICU No minimum cut-off
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Not excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
PERUCONPLASMA (NCT04497324) Peru Recruiting None Standard of care 25 (100) 16.00% 30 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: EUROIMMUN S/C > 5.0
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04332835 Colombia Completed Outcome Assessor Standard of care 100 (92) 8.00% 7, 14 and 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: IgG ≥ 1/3200 and IgA ≥ 1/800 by EUROIMMUN. All transfused plasma presented neutralizing antibodies ≥ 1/256
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
CONFIDENT (NCT04558476) Belgium Recruiting None Standard of care 301 (500) 31.89% 28 and 90 days ICU Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:320 neutralizing, in-house assay
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
PC/COVID-19 (NCT04366245) Spain Completed None Standard of care 41 (72) 2.44% 14 and 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Low titer: Vircell SL (Spain) test, correlates to ≥ 1:320 S-RBD IgG
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
COP-COVID-19 (NCT04358783) Mexico Recruiting Participant, Care Provider Standard of care 31 (30) 35.48% 14 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Low titer: S/C ≥ 3, Abbott's chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for the qualitative detection of IgG
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04600440 Sweden Terminated None Standard of care 31 (100) 16.13% 90 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:40 neutralizing, in-house assay
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
CCAP-2
(NCT04345289)
Denmark Terminated Participant, Care Provider, Outcome Assessor Placebo (normal saline) 144 (1,100) 11.11% 7, 14, 21, 28 and 90 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Other titer leveld
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
Published           
ChiCTR2000029757 China Terminated None Standard of care 103 (200) 19.42% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:640 S-RBD IgG, in-house assay
(NA)
NA
(NA)
NCT04342182 Netherlands Terminated None Standard of care 86 (426) 19.77% 60 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Low titer: ≥ 1:400 S-RBD IgG, assay missing
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04392414 Russia Completed None Placebo (fresh frozen plasma) 66 (60) 6.06% 30 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:1000 S-RBD IgG, in-house assay
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Not excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
ConPlas-19 (NCT04345523) Spain Terminated None Standard of care 81 (278) 4.94% 29 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: > 1:80, neutralizing assay
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(NA)
PLACID (CTRI/2020/04/024775) India Completed None Standard of care 464 (452) 14.01% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
ILBS-COVID-02 (NCT04346446) India Completed None Placebo (fresh frozen plasma) 31 (40) 3.23% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04356534 Bahrain Completed None Standard of care 40 (40) 7.50% 28 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
Moderate to severe
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
PLASM-AR (NCT04383535) Argentina Completed Participant, Care Provider Placebo (normal saline) 333 (333) 11.11% 30 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:800 S-RBD IgG, COVIDAR IgG test
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
Mild to moderate
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
PICP19 (CTRI/2020/05/025209) India Completed None Standard of care 80 (80) 30.00% 30 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04479163 Argentina Terminated Participant, Care Provider Placebo (normal saline) 160 (210) 3.75% 25 days Outpatients Confirmed high-titer: > 1:1000 (COVIDAR IgG, Instituto Leloir, Argentina)
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(NA)
RECOVERY Trial (NCT04381936) United Kingdom Terminated None Standard of care 11,558 (N/A) 24.28% 28 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Confirmed high-titer: ≥ 1:100 neutralizing (EUROIMMUN IgG ELISA S/C ≥ 6.0)
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
NCT04359810 United States Completed Participant, Outcomes Assessor Placebo (fresh frozen plasma) 223 (219) 16.59% 28 days Inpatients with or without supplemental oxygen Low titer: ≥ 1:400 S-RBD IgG, in-house assay
(No exclusion based on timing of symptom onset)
NA
(NA)
IRCT20200310046736N1e Iran Completed Participant, Outcome Assessor Standard of care 62 (62) 12.90% 60 days Inpatients with supplemental oxygen No minimum cut-off
(Maximum was =  < 14 days after symptom onset)
NA
(Excluding potentially HLA antibody positive persons)
  1. ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IgG immunoglobulin G, S-RBD IgG spike-protein receptor binding domain-specific IgG antibody titer, NA not reported, S/C sample to cutoff ratio
  2. aFor published trials, we report the planned time point (after randomization) stated in the publications and used for our meta-analysis. For unpublished trials, we report the planned time points as reported in the registries and for the meta-analysis, we used the mortality data available at the time-point of the request, which may not reflect the planned time points (or future publications reporting on it)
  3. bNCT04403477 compares two different volumes of plasma (a) 400 mL and (b) 200 mL versus standard of care
  4. cThe multi-arm PLACO-COVID trial includes another experimental arm (N = 60) treated with standard therapy + standard plasma, a treatment not considered in this review
  5. dCCAP-2 initially used a EUROIMMUN cutoff of > 3.0, which was changed to > 3.5 after the March 2021 update of the US FDA emergency use authorization with its new guidance. For this meta-analysis, it is categorized as non-high titer
  6. eIRCT20200310046736N was published after the last literature search on April 8th, 2021. The trial team made us aware of their publication