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Table 5 Antibiotic resistance levels of gam-negative bacteria isolated from septic neonates admitted to referral hospitals in Sana’a city, Yemen, in the period from January 15 to March 30, 2020

From: Neonatal sepsis in Sana’a city, Yemen: a predominance of Burkholderia cepacia

Pathogen Ampicillin sulbactam Ampicillin Amo/CA Piperacillin/tazobactam Cefalotin Cefazolin Cefuroxime
N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
B. cepacia 54 100 60 100 28 100 60 15 27 100 60 100 28 100
K. oxytoca 20 100 20 100 3 100 20 100 3 100 20 100 3 100
P. agglomerans NA NA NA NA 9 100 9 100 9 100 10 100 9 100
P. aeruginosa 6 100 6 100 4 100 6 0 4 100 6 100 4 75
K. pneumoniae 5 100 5 100 1 100 5 100 1 100 5 100 1 100
P. dispersa NA NA NA NA NA NA 4 100 NA NA 4 75 NA NA
A. baumannii 3 33 1 100 3 33 3 33 1 100 3 100 1 100
A. lwoffii 3 100 3 100 2 100 3 33 3 100 3 100 2 100
E. cloacae complex NA NA NA NA 1 100 3 33 1 100 3 100 1 100
E. coli 2 50 2 100 NA NA 2 100 NA NA 2 100 NA NA
A. denitrificans 1 0 1 100 1 0 1 0 1 100 1 100 1 100
S. marcescens NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 100 NA NA 1 100 NA NA
S. paucimobilis 1 100 1 100 NA NA 1 100 NA NA 1 100 NA NA
Pathogen Cefuroxime axetil Cefoxitin Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Ceftriaxone Cefepime
N % N % N % N % N % N %
B. cepacia 28 100 59 100 28 100 60 3.3 60 10 60 0
K. oxytoca 3 100 20 100 3 100 20 100 20 100 20 100
P. agglomerans 9 100 10 100 9 100 10 100 10 100 10 100
P.aeruginosa 4 100 6 100 4 75 6 0 6 66 6 0
K. pneumoniae 1 100 5 80 1 100 5 100 5 100 5 100
P. dispersa NA NA 4 75 NA NA 4 75 4 75 4 75
A. baumannii 1 100 3 100 1 100 3 100 3 100 3 33
A. lwoffii 2 100 3 100 2 100 3 33 3 0 3 0
E. cloacae complex 1 100 3 100 1 100 3 33 3 33 3 33
E. coli NA NA 2 50 NA NA 2 100 2 100 2 100
A. denitrificans 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 0 1 100 1 0
S. marcescens NA NA 1 0 NA NA 1 100 1 100 1 100
S. paucimobilis NA NA 1 100 NA NA 1 0 1 100 1 0
Pathogen Gentamicin Tobramycin Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Tetracycline FT SXT
N % N %) N % N % N % N % N %
B. cepacia 59 100 60 100 60 98 60 80 28 100 60 100 60 5
K. oxytoca 20 0 20 100 20 0 20 0 3 0 20 0 20 0
P. agglomerans 10 100 10 100 10 0 10 0 9 0 10 100 10 0
P. aeruginosa 6 66 6 66 6 17 6 33 4 100 6 100 6 66
K. pneumoniae 5 20 5 100 5 0 5 0 1 0 5 20 5 40
P. dispersa 4 100 4 100 4 25 4 0 NA NA 4 75 3 33
A. baumannii 3 66 3 66 3 33 3 33 1 0 3 100 3 100
A. lwoffii 3 100 3 100 3 0 3 66 2 100 3 100 3 66
E. cloacae complex 3 33 3 33 3 33 3 0 1 0 3 33 3 33
E. coli 2 0 2 50 2 50 2 50 NA NA 2 0 2 0
A. denitrificans 1 100 1 100 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 100 1 0
S. marcescens 1 100 1 100 1 0 1 0 NA NA 1 100 1 0
S. paucimobilis 1 100 1 100 1 0 1 100 NA NA 1 100 1 0
Pathogen Imipenem Ertapenem Meropenem Amikacin ESBL Carbapenemase
N % N % N % N % N % N %
B. cepacia 7 100 NA NA 53 13 53 100 NA NA
K. oxytoca 1 100 20 100 20 100 20 65 20 100 20 100
P. agglomerans 7 100 8 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100
P. aeruginosa 2 100 NA NA 6 0 6 66  
K. pneumoniae NA NA 5 80 5 80 5 40 5 100 5 80
P. dispersa NA NA 4 50 4 50 4 25 4 75 4 50
A. baumannii 1 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 100 NA NA
A. lwoffii NA NA NA NA 1 100 3 100  
E. cloacae complex NA NA 3 33 3 33 3 33 3 33 1 Pos
E. coli NA NA 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 100
A. denitrificans 1 0 NA NA 1 0 1 100 1 Pos
S. marcescens NA NA 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Pos
S. paucimobilis NA NA NA NA 1 100 1 100   Pos Pos
  1. N: the number of isolated bacteria tested for antibiotic sensitivity; %: the percentage of resistant bacteria; NA: not analyzed; pos: positive; Amo/CA: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; FT: nitrofurantoin; SXT: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; ESBLPos: positive, ESBL-positive, resistance for all penicillins, cephalosporins and aztreonam