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Table 3 Factors influencing knowledge

From: Tertiary hospitals physician’s knowledge and perceptions towards antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Cameroon

Characteristic Knowledge score p value
Professional category, mean (± SD)
 GP 49 (15) 0.16
 Resident 56 (14)
 Specialist 61 (14)
Hospital, mean (± SD)
 General Hospital 59 (13) 0.64
 Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatrics Hospital 58 (13)
 Teaching Hospital 58 (13)
 Central Hospital 54 (15)
Experience as medical officer mean (± SD)
 ≤ 3 years 53 (15) 0.19
 > 3 years 58 (13)
Experience as specialist, mean (± SD)
 ≤ 3 years 60 (14) 0.53
 > 3 years 64 (11)
Years of residency mean (± SD)
 ≤ 2 years 54 (13) 0.38
 > 2 years 58 (14)
Previous training on dosing and duration of antibiotic therapy, mean (± SD)
 Yes 57 (14) 0.83
 No 56 (14)
Previous training on principles of infection prevention and control, mean (± SD)
 Yes 58 (17) 0.54
 No 56 (14)
Personal previous experience, mean (± SD)
 Do not influence at all/do not influence 56 (14) 0.61
 Neutral 52 (15)
 Influence/strongly influence 60 (19)
Perceptions and attitudes
 Patient reassurance, mean (± SD)
  Do not influence at all/ do not influence 67 (12) 0.01
  Neutral 62 (13)
  Influence/strongly influence 53 (13)
 Antibiotic resistance profile in the hospital/ward, mean (± SD)
  Do not influence at all/ do not influence 56 (13) 0.07
  Neutral 60 (14)
  Influence/strongly influence 40 (17)
 Risk of missing an infection, mean (± SD)
  Do not influence at all/ do not influence 55 (14) 0.27
  Neutral 54 (14)
  Influence/strongly influence 61 (13)
 Patient immunocompromised or critically ill, mean (± SD)
  Do not influence at all/ do not influence 57 (14) 0.27
  Neutral 57 (15)
  Influence/strongly influence 43 (15)
 Pharmaceutical firms pressure, mean (± SD)   
  Do not influence at all/ do not influence 56 (12) 0.95
  Neutral 57 (14)
  Influence/strongly influence 56 (15)
 Antibiotic overuse in Cameroon, mean (± SD)   
  Strongly disagree/disagree 56 (14) 0.51
  Neutral 45 (7)
  Agree/strongly agree 60 (-)
 Antibiotic overuse in the hospital, mean (± SD)
  Strongly disagree/disagree 56 (15) 0.66
  Neutral 58 (13)
  Agree/strongly agree 54 (13)
 Antibiotic overuse in ward*   0.30
  Strongly disagree/disagree 60 (13)
  Neutral 56 (15)
  Agree/strongly agree 54 (14)  
 Antibiotic resistance in Cameroon
  Strongly disagree/disagree 56 (14) 0.88
  Neutral 60 (20)
  Agree/strongly agree 57 (6)
 Antibiotic resistance in hospital
  Strongly disagree/disagree 57 (14) 0.38
  Neutral 53 (14)
  Agree/strongly agree (11) 59 (12)
 Antibiotic resistance in ward
  Strongly disagree/disagree 57 (14) 0.95
  Neutral 56 (14)
  Agree/strongly agree 56 (14)
Resources used for antibiotic prescribing
 Infectious diseases specialist, mean (± SD)
  Not familiar/never 57 (13) 0.69
  Rarely 55 (16)
  Sometimes/Often 53 (14)
 Other consultants, mean (± SD)
  Not familiar/never 55 (13) 0.73
  Rarely 58 (15)
  Sometimes/Often 54 (18)
 Other colleagues, mean (± SD)
  Not familiar/never 55 (15) 0.51
  Rarely 58 (12)
 Textbooks, mean (± SD)
  Not familiar/never 58 (13) 0.01
  Rarely 40 (12)
 WHO guidelines, mean (± SD)
  Not familiar/never 57 (14) 0.73
  Rarely 54 (16)
  Sometimes/Often 50 (0)
 Learned society guidelines, mean (± SD)   
  Not familiar/never 57 (13) 0.21
  Rarely 48 (24)
 iPad/smart phone apps, mean (± SD)   
  Not familiar/never 55 (14) 0.56
  Rarely 59 (15)
  Sometimes/Often 58 (13)
 Ward round   
  Not helpful at all/not helpful 55 (14) 0.52
  Neutral 61 (11)
  Helpful/very helpful 60 (-)
 Conferences   
  Not helpful at all/not helpful 56 (14) 0.52
  Neutral 60 (10)
 Pharmaceutical representatives
  Not helpful at all/not helpful 60 (12) 0.15
  Neutral 53 (16)
  Helpful/very helpful 52 (12)
  1. GP general practitioner; SD standard derivation