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Table 5 Presenting symptoms of the dengue patients in 2019 outbreak with comparison of previous outbreak

From: Comparison of clinical manifestation of dengue fever in Bangladesh: an observation over a decade

  Outbreak
2008
Outbreak
2016
Outbreak
2018
Outbreak
2019
Chi-square statistic p value*
Lead author Arif et al. [20] Pervin et al. [21] Sultana et al. [22] Current study   
Sample size 55 40 350 553   
Mean age (years)    25 27   
Sex: (%)       
 Male 83.63 62.5 68.57 63.2 7.1892 0.0073β
 Female 16.37 37.5 31.43 36.8
Clinical features (%)       
 Fever   100 100 100   
Pain pattern       
 Headache 32.72 25 61.14 62.7 32.0649  < 0.0001α
 Myalgia/body ache   12.5 44    
 Low back pain    3.14 10.5   
 Retro-orbital pain/eye ache 16.38 50 20.29 39.1 3.4292 0.0641£
 Arthralgia/joint pain 9.09 87.5 23.14 4.5 14.2545 0.0002β
 Neck pain     7.1   
Respiratory symptoms   
 Respiratory distress     4.5   
 Cough     5.4   
 Abdominal symptoms       
 Anorexia 5.45 27.5   38 29.3381  < 0.0001α
 Nausea   27.5   69.6   
 Vomiting 40 27.5     
 Diarrhoea 3.63 25 5.14 26.2 8.9826 0.0027α
Abdominal distension       
Abdominal pain 1.81 30 32.86 41.6 143.39  < 0.001α
Clinical signs       
 Pleural effusion     2.5   
 Ascites     1.8   
 Jaundice   12.5   1   
 Skin rash   12.5 6 4.5 4.5205 0.0335β
Diff. types of hemorrhagic manifestation   
 Positive tourniquet test 43.63    10.5   
 Melena   7.5 6.1 5.4 0.3717 0.5421
 Gum bleeding     3.6   
 Haematuria     0.5   
 Conj. Hge./hemorrhagic sclera 16.36 20   12.1 0.6699 0.4131
 Haematemesis       
 Haemoptysis       
 Epistaxis     1.6   
 Vaginal bleeding     1.8   
Others     2.4   
 Less urine output     0.2   
 Hypotension 70.9    25   
 Convulsion       
 Joint swelling       
 Lethargy   30     
  1. Statistical analysis was performed for those variables who had data at least for 3 outbreak
  2. *p-value was estimated by using Cochran–Armitage-test and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  3. αIncreasing and statistically significant trend present
  4. βDecreasing and statistically significant trend present
  5. £Increasing and statistically non-significant trend present
  6. Decreasing and statistically non-significant trend present