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Table 2 Country-level characteristics associated with the fragility of ART programmes in southern Africa regarding pretreatment drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)

From: Drivers of HIV-1 drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in nine southern African countries: a modelling study

Country-level covariate Correlationa
Gross national income per capita (US$) 0.28 (− 0.08 to 0.70)
Current health expenditure per capita (US$) 0.53 (0.17 to 0.85)
External donor funding (proportion of current health expenditure) − 0.45 (− 0.80 to − 0.10)
Out-of-pocket expenditure (proportion of current health expenditure) 0.02 (− 0.43 to 0.40)
Rural population (proportion of total population) − 0.17 (− 0.55 to 0.18)
PMTCT (proportion of total prevalenceb) 0.28 (− 0.15 to 0.63)
Unemployment (proportion of total labour force) 0.22 (− 0.18 to 0.67)
  1. PMTCT, prevention of mother to child transmission
  2. aSpearman's rank correlation coefficient between the posterior samples of the indicator of vulnerability to pretreatment NNRTI resistance within ART access programmes and each covariate (median and 95% credible interval)
  3. bThe proportion of pregnant women who received NNRTIs for PMTCT as a proportion of HIV-1 adult prevalence