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Table 6 Biomarkers associated with B. coli mono-infection

From: Prevalence and risk factors of human Balantidium coli infection and its association with haematological and biochemical parameters in Ga West Municipality, Ghana

Biomarkers B. coli negative individuals (n = 86) B. coli mono–infections (n = 34) B. coli and other parasites co–infection (n = 9) p–value
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 13.4 ± 1.09 11.6 ± 2.33 10.7 ± 2.98†‡ 0.008
Red blood cells (x1012/L) 3.87 ± 1.01 3.14 ± 0.87 3.04 ± 1.21†‡ 0.033
Mean cell volume (fL) 85.3 ± 7.23 103.3 ± 5.78 109.3 ± 3.99†‡ < 0.001
Total white blood cells (x109/L) 9.5 ± 2.2 12.4 ± 3.4†‡ 11.5 ± 2.5†‡ 0.004
Neutrophils (%) 45.7 ± 7.2 42.7 ± 5.4 43.6 ± 6.4 0.087
Lymphocytes (%) 44.6 ± 6.4 42.2 ± 4.7 53.2 ± 2.7 0.002
Mid–cells (%) 7.2 ± 2.9 8.6 ± 4.0 11.3 ± 3.3 0.009
Platelet count (x1012/L) 151 ± 28 145 ± 35 112 ± 15 0.010
Sodium (mmol/L) 138.9 ± 5.4 132.4 ± 3.6 131.4 ± 3.7 0.020
Potassium (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 0.54 5.5 ± 0.78 5.3 ± 1.01 0.106
Chloride (mmol/L) 93.7 ± 5.1 89.3 ± 9.6 88.3 ± 5.9 0.018
Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 23.3 ± 2.31 19.56 ± 1.89 17.4 ± 2.01†‡ 0.025
Urea (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 1.8 5.9 ± 2.1 0.197
Creatinine (µmol/L) 75.4 ± 6.7 71.3 ± 5.0 72.5 ± 3.6 0.213
ALP (U/L) 205 ± 18.6 211 ± 20.1 198 ± 14.9 0.088
Total protein (g/L) 73.2 ± 4.7 69.2 ± 3.5 67.6 ± 6.6 0.077
Albumin (g/L) 36.4 ± 5.1 34.9 ± 3.2 34.0 ± 3.9 0.004
AST (U/L) 33.8 ± 3.7 34.4 ± 4.0 35.5 ± 2.1 0.115
ALT (U/L) 31.5 ± 0.89 28.5 ± 2.5 33.5 ± 1.4 0.066
Indirect bilirubin (µmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.88 4.7 ± 1.07 6.1 ± 1.15 0.321
Direct bilirubin (µmol/L) 8.4 ± 0.56 9.8 ± 0.78 10.7 ± 0.57 0.228
  1. Values of biomarkers presented as mean ± standard deviation, significant difference between infection (either mono or co-infection) and noninfected comparative group, significant difference between co-infection and noninfected comparative group. ALP alkaline phosphatase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase