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Table 2 Factors associated with viral suppression (n = 831)

From: Viral suppression among HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy in northwestern Nigeria: an eleven-year review of tertiary care centre records, January 2009–December 2019

Variables n (%) Viral load suppressed n = 751 Viral load unsuppressed n = 80 P value
Baseline CD4 counts (cells/µl) *
  < 500 404 (48.6) 346 (46.1) 58 (72.5)  < 0.001
  ≥ 500 427 (51.4) 405 (53.9) 22 (27.5)  
Years on HAART
  < 5 years 354 (42.6) 325 (43.3) 29 (36.3) 0.237
  ≥ 5 years 477 (57.4) 426 (56.7) 51 (63.7)  
HAART Regimen
 First Line 793 (95.4) 728 (96.9) 65 (81.3)  < 0.001
 Second Line 38 (4.6) 23 (3.1) 15 (18.7)  
TB confirmed**
 Yes 21 (2.5) 19 (2.8) 2 (2.8) 1.000f
 No 731 (88.0) 662 (97.2) 69 (97.2)  
 Missing 79 (9.5)    
Disease stage
 WHO stages 1 and 2 809 (97.4) 732 (97.5) 77 (96.3) 0.461f
 WHO stages 3 and 4 22 (2.6) 19 (2.5) 3 (3.7)  
Pregnancy Status (n = 578)
 Not Pregnant 558 (96.5) 501 (96.7) 57 (95.0) 0.452f
 Pregnant 20 (3.5) 17 (3.3) 3 (5.0)  
Viral Load (cp/ml)
Median (IQR)
20 (20–74)
Range (20 to 2,469,613)
20 (20–40)
Range (20 to 925)
19,989 (3311 to 110,340)
Range (1170 to 2,468,443.0)
 < 0.001
2019
Viral Load (cp/ml)
Median (IQR)
20 (20–70.5)
Range (20 to 2,469,613)
N = 744
20 (20–40)
Range (20 to 845)
N = 674
17,086.5 (3228.8–131,695
Range (1170 to 2,469,613)
N = 70
 < 0.001
2018
Viral Load (cp/ml)
Median (IQR)
20 (20–119)
Range (20 to 112,454)
N = 87
20 (20–39.5)
Range (20 to 925)
N = 77
31,997.0
(4205.5–68,372.0)
Range (1373 to 112,454)
N = 10
 < 0.001
  1. *Baseline value of CD4 count at enrollment (Prior to the commencement of anti-retroviral therapy-ART); **TB confirmed cases among those with viral load suppression; IQR-Interquartile range; f-Fischer exact test