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Table 2 Group comparison COVID-19 versus COVID-19 negative airway infections

From: What about the others: differential diagnosis of COVID-19 in a German emergency department

  All
(n = 136)
COVID19+ (n = 47) COVID19–
(n = 89)
Odds ratio
(95% confidence interval)
p-value
Symptoms, n (%)
 Dyspnoe 73 (53.7) 19 (40.4) 54 (60.7) 0.440 (0.214–0.905) 0.024
 Sore throat 10 (7.4) 4 (8.5) 6 (6.7) 1.287 (0.345–4.806) 0.707
 Cough 79 (58.0) 25 (28.1) 54 (60.7) 0.737 (0.361–1.503) 0.400
 Fever 85 (62.5) 31 (66.0) 54 (60.7) 1.256 (0.600–2.627) 0.545
 Headache 14 (10.3) 5 (10.6) 9 (10.1) 1.058 (0.333–3.360) 0.924
 Fatigue 68 (50.0) 22 (46.8) 46 (51.7) 0.823 (0.405–1.670) 0.589
 Myalgia 24 (17.6) 6 (12.8) 18 (20.2) 0.577 (0.212–1.570) 0.278
 Chest pain 11 (8.1) 2 (4.3) 9 (10.1) 0.395 (0.82–1.909) 0.234
 Nausea 22 (16.2) 6 (12.8) 16 (18.0) 0.668 (0.242–1.839) 0.433
 Diarrhea 35 (26.5) 13 (27.7) 22 (24.7) 1.164 (0.523–2.592) 0.709
 Dysgeusia 9 (6.6) 7 (14.9) 2 (2.2) 7.631 (1.513–38.292) 0.005
Death, n (%) 14 (10.3) 9 (19.1) 5 (5.6) 3.979 (1.242–12.673) 0.014
Treatment, n (%)
 O2-therapy 52 (38.2) 20 (42.6) 32 (36.0) 1.319 (0.641–2.717) 0.451
 Ventilator 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.2) 0.978 (0.947–1.009) 0.137
 Intensive care 24 (17.6) 6 (12.8) 18 (20.2) 0.577 (0.212–1.570) 0.278
 Intermediate care 12 (8.8) 4 (8.5) 8 (9.0) 0.942 (0.268–3.307) 0.926
 Time of admission (days) 6.8 (± 6.4) 9.0 (± 8.1) 5.6 (± 5.0)   0.014
Vital parameters
 Respiratory rate/min (± SD) 37.2 (± 1.2) 23.7 (± 7.4) 22.3 (± 6.7)   0.283
 Heart rate/min (± SD) 96.7 (± 21.6) 93.7 (± 16.6) 98.4 (± 23.8) 0.235
 Saturation, O2 in % (± SD) 94.3 (± 7.1) 94.9 (± 4.0) 94.0 (± 8.4) 0.456
 Temperature in °C, (± SD) 37.2 (± 1.2) 37.3 (± 1.0) 37.2 (± 1.2) 0.552
 BP systolic in mmHg (± SD) 132.5 (± 25.6) 136.2 (± 24.1) 130.52 (± 26.3) 0.219
 BP diastolic in mmHg (± SD) 79.0 (± 17.4) 82.9 (± 18.1) 77.0 (± 16.7) 0.057
Laboratory values
 C-reactive proteine, mg/L 9.57 (± 7.86) 8.2 (± 5.8) 10.3 (± 8.7)   0.100
 Procalcitonine, µg/L (± SD) 4.53 (± 36.75) 0.42 (± 1.49) 6.74 (± 45.47) 0.354
 Troponin I, µg/L (± SD) 73.27 (± 268.64) 76.59 (± 278.7) 71.33 (± 265.0) 0.928
 LDH, U/L (± SD) 370.67(± 248.34) 439.5 (± 264.9) 335.8 (± 233.4) 0.025
 Creatinine, mg/dL (± SD) 1.21 (± 0.87) 1.18 (± 0.90) 1.23 (± 0.86) 0.729
 GFR, mL/min (± SD) 58.10 (± 19.10) 58.7 (± 19.18) 57.8 (± 19.17) 0.805
 D-dimer, mg/L (± SD) 3.10 (± 6.13) 4.29 (± 7.95) 2.44 (± 0.61) 0.222
WBC/mm3 (± SD) 12.04 (± 21.44) 8.00 (± 4.11) 14.1 (± 26.04) 0.115
 Lymphocytes/mm3 (± SD) 2.39 (± 10.99) 1.20 (± 1.40) 3.1 (± 13.95) 0.322
  1. Bold values mark a significant parameter (p < 0,05) and were used to improve readibility and to emphasize main results