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Table 3 Percentual changes (expressed as median and interquartile interval) in parameters of heart rate variability analyzed in the time- and frequency-domains or using non-linear analysis during the cold face test in patients belonging to the studied groups: HIV seronegative controls (n = 35) and HIV seropositive patients of Group 1 (treated with 3TC, TDF, EFV, n = 44) and Group 2 (treated with 3TC + AZT; 3TC + TDF + LPV/r, n = 42) with suppressed viremia

From: Linear and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in HIV-positive patients on two different antiretroviral therapy regimens

  HIV seronegative controls HIV seropositive p value
Group 1
(3TC, TDF, EFV)
Group 2
(3TC + AZT; 3TC + TDF + LPV/r)
Number 35 44 42  
Time-domain analysis     
 Mean RRi (%)  + 2.93 (4.51)  + 4.25 (4.11)  + 2.71 (4.61) NS (0.077)
 STD RR (%)  − 8.58 (25.35)  − 6.65 (33.69)  − 10.58 (22.62) NS (0.756)
 pNN50 (%)  + 31.24 (128.14)  + 8.85 (97.93)  + 1.87 (113.44) NS (0.163)
 RMSSD (%)  + 28.85 (28.73)  + 8.76 (27.16)*  + 2.26 (38.71)*  < 0.001
 Frequency-domain analysis     
 LF freq. (%) 0.00 (20.14)  + 7.50 (9.80) 0.00 (0.14) NS (0.648)
 LF power (%)  − 7.38 (73.34)  − 23.17 (70.54)  − 28.26 (55.55) NS (0.265)
 LF (n.u.) (%)  − 17.47 (30.39)  − 15.80 (27.84)  − 16.65 (25.90) NS (0.630)
 HF freq. (%)  − 2.86 (15.29)  + 0.77 (73.13) 0.00 (42.36) NS (0.274)
 HF power (%)  + 16.43 (64.17)  + 26.29 (76.26)  + 12.23 (89.63) NS (0.366)
 HF (n.u.) (%)  + 3.78 (78.35)  + 22.22 (58.89)  + 26.76 (63.57) NS (0.268)
 LF/HF ratio (%)  − 28.57 (82.73)  − 32.31 (45.82)  − 40.83 (50.10) NS (0.792)
Non-linear analysis     
 Poincaré Plot     
  SD1 (%)  − 1.67 (19.33)  + 8.88 (27.90)  + 2.08 (38.00) NS (0.159)
  SD2 (%)  − 11.54 (25.98)  − 9.63 (40.32)  − 14.36 (23.50) NS (0.592)
 Recurrence plot     
  Mean line length (%)  − 15.67 (59.71)  − 23.37 (36.47)  − 9.64 (30.21) NS (0.060)
  Max line length (%)  − 29.92 (63.68)  − 53.41 (28.09)  − 42.76 (55.93) NS (0.054)
  Recurrence rate (%)  − 7.59 (41.91)  − 19.02 (26.01)  − 6.11 (23.10) NS (0.107)
  Determinism rate (%)  − 0.83 (1.19)  − 0.91 (1.43)  − 0.33 (0.91) NS (0.077)
 Detrended fluctuation analysis     
  α1 (%)  − 6.94 (16.69)  − 14.04 (24.51)  − 11.77 (21.84) NS (0.085)
  α2 (%)  + 4.51 (37.56)  + 4.45 (23.96)  + 2.50 (29.34) NS (0.952)
 Complexity     
  Approximate entropy (%)  − 5.23 (19.44)  − 11.68 (21.66)  − 11.88 (12.78) NS (0.194)
  Sample entropy (%)  + 6.25 (29.68)  + 11.97 (40.57)  + 11.31 (26.59) NS (0.779)
  Correlation dimension (%)  − 13.76 (43.78)  − 4.13 (84.48)  − 12.03 (50.13) NS (0.849)
  1. Data are expressed as median (percentile 25, percentile 75). P = significance level from Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA; NS = non significant; LF = low frequency; HF = high frequency; LH/HF = ratio between low and high frequency bands; n.u. = normalized units. 3TC = lamivudine, TDF = tenofovir, EFV: efavirenz, AZT = zidovudine, LPV = lopinavir, r = ritonavir
  2. *p < 0.05 versus control group