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Table 3 Analysis of risk factors associated with positive urine test for Chlamydia trachomatis

From: Prevalence estimates of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Belgium: results from two cross-sectional studies

CT1 study
  Negative urine test Positive urine test Univariate OR (95% CI) p-value Multivariable OR (95% CI)a p-value Multivariable OR (95% CI)b p-value
Gender
 Female 416 6 1      
 Male 343 5 1.01 (0.31, 3.34) 0.99 1.02 (0.29, 3.40) 0.98 1.63 (0.41, 6.87) 0.49
Age group
 16–29 y/o age 178 3 1      
 30–44 y/o age 274 5 1.08 (0.26, 4.59) 0.91 1.09 (0.26, 5.35) 0.91 1.13 (0.23, 6.27) 0.88
 45–59 y/o age 307 3 0.58 (0.12, 2.90) 0.50 0.580 (0.30, 3.49) 0.51 0.53 (0.07, 3.46) 0.50
Last sexual partner
 Steady 552 5 1      
 Casual 70 4 6.31 (1.66, 24.1) < 0.01 4.63 (1.06, 19) 0.03 3.17 (0.43, 19.7) 0.23
Nr. of sexual partners in the last 12 months
 1 partner 526 6 1      
 3 or more partners 58 3 4.53 (1.10, 18.6) 0.02 1.75 (0.95, 3) 0.05 1.28 (0.58, 2.8) 0.53
Ever been tested for STI
 No 408 4 1      
 Yes 272 6 2.25 (0.63, 8.05) 0.20 2.11 (0.59, 8.36) 0.25 1.14 (0.27, 4.92) 0.86
Condom use during last intercourse
 Yes 64 1 1      
 No 561 8 0.91 (0.11, 7.41) 0.93 1.33 (0.23, 25.4) 0.79 2.13 (0.33, 42.3) 0.50
Level of education (lowest = 1, highest = 4)    1.52 (0.65, 5.74) 0.43 1.62 (0.66, 6.4) 0.39 1.88 (0.59, 12.1) 0.39
CT2 study
  Negative urine test Positive urine test Univariate OR (95% CI) p-value Multivariable OR (95% CI)a p-value Multivariable OR (95% CI)c p-value
Gender
 Female 405 7 1      
 Male 348 3 0.50 (0.13, 1.94) 0.31 0.501 (0.11, 1.82) 0.32 0.46 (0.06, 2.18) 0.36
Age group
 18–29 y/o age 122 3 1      
 30–44 y/o age 297 2 0.27 (0.05, 1.66) 0.13 0.266 (0.03, 1.63) 0.15 0.23 (0.01, 1.90) 0.21
 45–59 y/o age 334 5 0.61 (0.14, 2.59) 0.50 0.611 (0.15, 3.02) 0.50 0.82 (0.14, 4.78) 0.82
Relationship status
 Married or legally cohabitating 460 5 1      
 Single 215 1 10.7 (1.24, 92) 0.01 9.59 (1.28, 195) 0.05 7.3 (0.75, 166) 0.11
 Single, divorced or widowed 293 9 14.1 (1.78, 112) < 0.01 15.2 (2.8, 284) 0.01 13.0 (1.98, 254) 0.02
Nr. of sexual partners in the last 12 months
 1 partner 535 6 1      
 2 partners 24 1 3.72 (0.43, 32.1) 0.20 3.21 (0.16, 21.4) 0.30 1.38 (0.07, 9.23) 0.08
Sexual intercourse before age 15
 No 623 8 1      
 Yes 31 1 2.51 (0.30, 20.7) 0.38 2.36 (0.12, 13.6) 0.43 2.55 (0.13, 17.1) 0.41
Ever been tested for STI (excl. HIV)
 No 341 6       
 Yes 318 3 0.54 (0.13, 2.16) 0.37 0.484 (0.10, 1.86) 0.31 0.58 (0.11, 2.77) 0.49
Tested for STI (excl. HIV) in the last 12 months
 No 600 8       
 Yes 59 1 1.27 (0.16, 10.3) 0.82 1.20 (0.06, 6.86) 0.87 1.11 (0.05, 7.4) 0.93
Ever been tested for HIV
 No 399 6 1      
 Yes 300 3 0.66 (0.16, 2.68) 0.56 0.649(0.13, 2.49) 0.54 0.69 (0.13, 3.32) 0.65
Tested for HIV in the last 12 months
 No 647 8 1      
 Yes 52 1 1.56 (0.19, 12.7) 0.68 1.61 (0.09, 9.19) 0.66 1.37 (0.07, 9.18) 0.78
Health literacy level
 Low/limited 231 3 1      
 Sufficient 466 6 0.99 (0.25, 4.00) 0.99 1.05 (0.27, 5.06) 0.94 1.44 (0.3, 10.3) 0.67
Nationality
 Belgian 630 9 1      
 Other 123 1 0.57 (0.07, 4.53) 0.59 0.553 (0.03, 2.99) 0.58
Level of education (lowest = 1, highest = 4)    0.807 (0.34, 2.23) 0.65 0.8 (0.33, 2.2) 0.64 0.74 (0.20, 3.09) 0.66
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, STI sexually transmitted infection, excl. excluding, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, Nr. number
  2. aMultivariable analysis adjusting for gender and age in years
  3. bMultivariable analysis adjusting for gender, age in years, number of sexual partners and type of sexual partner
  4. cMultivariable analysis adjusting for gender, age in years, number of sexual partners and civil status