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Table 2 Dynamic abnormal rates of liver function test parameters in different groups of patients with COVID-19

From: Dynamic changes in liver function parameters in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a multicentre, retrospective study

  Total (n = 70) Non-ICU (n = 30) ICU (n = 23) Fatality (n = 17) p1 p2 p3
Day 3–7 before viral shedding        
 ALT increased (0–40 U/L) 10 (14.3) 5 (16.7) 3 (13) 2 (11.8) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 AST increased (0–40 U/L) 7 (10) 2 (6.7) 3 (13) 2 (11.8) 0.642 0.613 1.000
 GGT increased (0–58 U/L) 9 (12.9) 5 (16.7) 2 (8.7) 2 (11.8) 0.685 1.000 1.000
 ALP increased (40–130 U/L) 2 (2.9) 1 (3.3) 0 (0) 1 (5.9) 1.000 1.000 0.425
 ALB decreased (35–55 g/L) 15 (21.4) 6 (20) 4 (17.4) 5 (29.4) 1.000 0.709 0.605
 TBIL increased (0–25 μmol/L) 4 (5.7) 0 (0) 2 (8.7) 2 (11.8) 0.184 0.126 1.000
During viral shedding, on day 1        
 ALT increased (0–40 U/L) 8 (11.4) 4 (13.3) 1 (4.3) 3 (17.6) 0.374 0.692 0.294
 AST increased (0–40 U/L) 7 (10) 3 (10) 1 (4.3) 3 (17.6) 0.624 0.653 0.294
 GGT increased (0–58 U/L) 15 (21.4) 8 (26.7) 3 (13) 4 (23.5) 0.384 1.000 0.432
 ALP increased (40–130 U/L) 1 (1.4) 1 (3.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000 1.000 -
 ALB decreased (35–55 g/L) 30 (42.9) 10 (33.3) 10 (43.5) 10 (58.8) 0.450 0.089 0.337
 TBIL increased (0–25 μmol/L) 12 (17.1) 5 (16.7) 3 (13) 4 (23.5) 1.000 0.850 0.432
During viral shedding, on day 5        
 ALT increased (0–40 U/L) 11/65 (16.9) 5/26 (19.2) 2 (8.7) 4/16 (25) 0.424 0.956 0.205
 AST increased (0–40 U/L) 9/65 (13.8) 1/26 (3.8) 2 (8.7) 6/16 (37.5) 0.594 0.008 0.045
 GGT increased (0–58 U/L) 14/65 (21.5) 7/26 (26.9) 5 (21.7) 2/16 (12.5) 0.674 0.472 0.678
 ALP increased (40–130 U/L) 7/65 (10.8) 2/26 (7.7) 1 (4.3) 4/16 (25) 1.000 0.180 0.139
 ALB decreased (35–55 g/L) 29/65 (44.6) 7/26 (26.9) 13 (56.5) 9/16 (37.5) 0.035 0.057 1.000
 TBIL increased (0–25 μmol/L) 14/65 (21.5) 5/26 (19.2) 2 (8.7) 7/16 (43.8) 0.424 0.175 0.019
During viral shedding, on day 10        
 ALT increased (0–40 U/L) 8/41 (19.5) 0/8 (0) 4/20 (20) 4/13 (30.8) 0.295 0.131 0.681
 AST increased (0–40 U/L) 6/41 (14.6) 0/8 (0) 2/20 (10) 4/13 (30.8) 1.000 0.131 0.182
 GGT increased (0–58 U/L) 14/41 (34.1) 3/8 (37.5) 7/20 (35) 4/13 (30.8) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 ALP increased (40–130 U/L) 4/41 (9.8) 0/8 (0) 0/20 (0) 4/13 (30.8) - 0.131 0.017
 ALB decreased (35–55 g/L) 23/41 (56.1) 5/8 (62.5) 10/20 (50) 8/13 (61.5) 0.686 1.000 0.722
 TBIL increased (0–25 μmol/L) 9/41 (22) 0/8 (0) 0/20 (0) 9/13 (69.2) - 0.005  < 0.001
On the day of viral clearance        
 ALT increased (0–40 U/L) 7/62 (11.3) 3 (10) 2 (8.7) 2/9 (22.2) 1.000 0.572 0.557
 AST increased (0–40 U/L) 6/62 (9.7) 0 (0) 2 (8.7) 4/9 (44.4) 0.184 0.002 0.038
 GGT increased (0–58 U/L) 19/62 (30.6) 9 (30) 8 (34.8) 2/9 (22.2) 0.712 0.974 0.681
 ALP increased (40–130 U/L) 1/62 (1.6) 0 (0) 1 (4.3) 0/9 (0) 0.434 - 1.000
 ALB decreased (35–55 g/L) 32/62 (51.6) 13 (43.3) 14 (60.9) 5/9 (55.6) 0.206 0.706 1.000
 TBIL increased (0–25 μmol/L) 10/62 (16.1) 3 (10) 2 (8.7) 5/9 (55.6) 1.000 0.009 0.010
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or n/N (%), where N is the total number of cases with available data. Data were unavailable in some patients because viral shedding discontinuation occurred before this timepoint or viruses were not cleared until death (fatality group). The corresponding normal ranges and units of the liver function test parameters are presented in parentheses; increased indicates over the upper limit of the normal range, and decreased indicates below the lower limit of the normal range. p1: non-ICU vs ICU groups, p2: non-ICU vs fatality, p3: ICU vs fatality