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Table 3 Clinical characteristics, risk factors and microbiological findings among the children with fatal outcome compared to improved children hospitalized due to radiologically confirmed pneumonia (n = 116)

From: Bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of Congolese children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia

Clinical characteristics/risk factors/microbiological findings Outcome  
Dead (n = 11) Improved (n = 104) OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted
p-value4
In hospital antibiotic treatment Ceftriaxone + gentamicin 6 (55) 56 (54) 1.02 (0.29–3.58) 0.96  
Ampicillin + gentamicin 5 (45) 41 (39) 1.28 (0.36–4.47) 0.69  
Nasal oxygen1   10 (91) 89 (86) 1.68 (0.20–14.14) 0.63  
Underlying conditions Congenital diseases2 4 (36) 5 (5) 15.84 (3.22–77.86) 0.0007 0.004
Malnutrition3 2 (18) 9 (9) 2.34 (0.43–12.55) 0.31  
Positive real-time PCR (Ct-values < 30) Streptococcus pneumoniae 10 (91) 51 (49) 10.39 (1.28–84.12) 0.028 0.81
Haemophilus influenzae 3 (27) 20 (19) 1.57 (0.38–6.47) 0.52  
Rhinovirus 3 (27) 31 (30) 0.88 (0.21–3.55) 0.86  
RSV 2 (18) 3 (3) 7.48 (1.10–50.76) 0.039 0.99
At least one bacteria + at least one virus 3 (27) 24 (23) 1.25 (0.30–5.08) 0.75  
  1. Bold indicates result with p-value < 0.05 that was considered statistically significant
  2. 1Nasal oxygen treatment = 0.5–2 L/min
  3. 2Congenital diseases = sickle cell disease (n = 2), congenital cardiac disorder (n = 1), cerebral palsy (n = 2), Down syndrome (n = 1) and HIV (n = 3)
  4. 3Malnutrition defined as weight for age or weight for height as a Z score ≤ − 2 standard deviations, determined by ENA for smart software 2011
  5. 4All factors with p < 0.2 in the univariabel analysis were included in the multivariable analysis: Congenital diseases, RSV and Streptococcus pneumoniae detected with Ct-value < 30