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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the children hospitalised due to severe versus non-severe pneumonia at Panzi Hospital, Bukavu, DR Congo between June 2015 and June 2017 (n = 116)

From: Bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of Congolese children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia

Factors   All cases
n = 116 (%)
Severe pneumonia
n = 85 (%)
Non-severe pneumonia
n = 31 (%)
Univariable analysis
p-value
Location of residence Bukavu urban area1 95 (82) 69 (81) 26 (84) 0.73
Bukavu rural area1 21 (18) 16 (19) 5 (16) 0.73
Sex Boys 61 (53) 43 (51) 18 (58) 0.47
Girls 55 (47) 42 (49) 13 (42) 0.47
Age in months Median [IQR]2 12 [8–36] 13 [8–36] 12 [9–36] 0.98
 ≤ 6 26 (22) 10 (12) 6 (19) 0.29
 > 6–12 32 (28) 30 (35) 12 (39) 0.73
 > 12–24 23 (20) 19 (22) 4 (13) 0.26
 > 24–36 14 (12) 12 (14) 2 (7) 0.27
 > 36–60 21 (18) 14 (16) 7 (23) 0.45
Undernutrition3   11 (9) 10 (12) 1 (3) 0.19
Other diseases4   9 (8) 8 (9) 1 (3) 0.29
PCV13 vaccination5 (2 or 3 doses) 78 (67) 55 (65) 23 (74) 0.33
Gastro-intestinal symptoms6   30 (26) 21 (25) 9 (29) 0.63
White cells count7 (cells/μL) Median [IQR] 16 [14–20] 17 [14–20] 16 [13–17] 0.018
4000–15,000 48 (41) 29 (34) 9 (29) 0.60
 > 15,000–20,000 54 (47) 35 (41) 19 (61) 0.58
 > 20,000 23 (20) 21 (25) 2 (7) 0.043
C-Reactive Protein8 (mg/dL) Median [IQR] 64 [28–64] 78 [24–84] 23 [22–69] 0.0004
 < 25 46 (40) 25 (29) 21 (68) 0.0003
25–75 21 (18) 12 (14) 9 (29) 0.07
 > 75 49 (42) 48 (56) 1 (3) 0.0004
Pre-hospitalisation antibiotic treatment No antibiotic 15 (13) 6 (7) 9 (29) 0.003
Amoxicillin, ampicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin 68 (59) 49 (58) 19 (61) 0.72
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 23 (20) 21 (25) 2 (6) 0.043
Other antibiotics9 10 (9) 9 (11) 1 (3) 0.23
Antibiotic treatment during hospital stay Ampicillin and gentamicin 46 (40) 25 (29) 4 (13) 0.07
Ceftriaxone and
gentamicin
62 (53) 53 (62) 9 (29) 0.002
Others10 8 (7) 7 (8) 1 (3) 0.36
Nasal oxygen therapy   100 (86) 79 (93) 21 (68) 0.001
Duration of hospital stay (days) Median [IQR] 5 [5–8] 5 [5–8] 5 [4, 5] 0.0001
1–5 70 (60) 44 (52) 26 (84) 0.003
 > 5–10 days 38 (33) 34 (40) 4 (13) 0.009
 > 10 days 8 (7) 7 (8) 1 (3) 0.36
Outcome Improved 104 (90) 74 (87) 30 (97) 0.16
Dead 11 (9) 10 (12) 1 (3) 0.19
Complications 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) -
  1. 1Bukavu urban area (n = 95): Ibanda area, n = 80; Kadutu area, n = 13; and Bagira, n = 2
  2. 2IQR interquartile range
  3. 3Undernutrition defined as weight for age or weight for height as a Z score ≤ -2 standard deviations, determined by ENA for smart software 2011
  4. 4Other diseases (Congenital and others): sickle cell disease (n = 2), congenital cardiac disorder (n = 1), cerebral palsy (n = 2), Down syndrome (n = 1), and HIV (n = 3)
  5. 5PCV13 = the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine
  6. 6Gastro-intestinal symptoms: diarrhoea or vomiting
  7. 7The normal range of White cells count is 4000–10,000 cells/μL
  8. 8The normal value for C-Reactive Protein is < 10 mg/dL
  9. 9Other antibiotics (pre-hospitalisation antibiotic treatment): erythromycin (n = 5), ciprofloxacin (n = 3) or cloxacillin (n = 2)
  10. 10Others (antibiotic treatment during hospital stay): ciprofloxacin (n = 3) and cloxacillin (n = 5)