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Table 3 Characteristics of respondents and univariable comparison of mean PozQoL scores in people living with HIV in Spain (n = 400) and Romania (n = 170)

From: Quality of life in people living with HIV in Romania and Spain

  Romania Spain
PozQoL mean score PozQoL mean score
Mean 95% CI p value Mean 95% CI p value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age (years): median (IQR) 3.50 3.38–3.62 0.531 3.50 3.43–3.57 0.037
Gender
 Men 3.48 3.33–3.63 0.772 3.57 3.48–3.65 0.0195
 Women 3.51 3.33–3.69 3.38 3.24–3.51
 Other     2.82 1.42–4.22
Ethnicity (Romania only)
 Romanian 3.57 3.44–3.70 0.002    
 Roma 3.10 2.84–3.36    
Migrant status (Spain only)       
 Born in Spain     3.56 3.48–3.64 0.0117
 Born abroad     3.35 3.20–3.50
Sex orientation       
 Heterosexual 3.50 3.38–3.63  < 0.001 3.47 3.38–3.53 0.423
 Homosexual/Bisexual 2.95 2.53–3.36 3.53 3.41–3.66
Educational level       
 No education 3.06 2.54–3.58 0.193 3.04 2.18–3.90 0.1372
 Primary 3.28 2.80–3.76 3.41 3.25–3.57
 Secondary 3.50 3.36–3.64 3.53 3.43–3.63
 University +  3.65 3.38–3.92 3.60 3.46–3.75
Employment       
 Full- or Part-time 3.86 3.58–4.15  < 0.001 3.58 3.49–3.67 0.0131
 Unemployed 3.69 3.51–3.87 3.27 3.09–3.45
 Other (student, retired, disabled) 3.30 3.13–3.46 3.47 3.29–3.65
Stable housing       
 No 3.52 3.33–3.71 0.744 3.41 3.21–3.61 0.349
 Yes (own or rent) 3.48 3.32–3.64 3.51 3.44–3.59
Money for basic needs       
Not always 3.38 3.23–3.53 0.010 3.29 3.18–3.40 0.0000
 Always 3.69 3.50–3.88 3.73 3.64–3.81
HIV-related characteristics       
Year of diagnosis       
 After 2010 3.39 3.09–3.69 0.456 3.47 3.34–3.61 0.474
 1995–2010 3.46 3.26–3.66 3.45 3.31–3.60
 Before 1995 3.58 3.41–3.75 3.56 3.44–3.68
ART status       
 No 3.15 2.70–3.61 0.570 2.90 1.46–4.33 0.045
 Yes 3.50 3.38–3.62 3.50 4.43–3.57
Adherence to ART       
 Fully adherent 3.52 3.37–3.67 0.738 3.55 3.47–3.62 0.446
 Not fully adherent 3.58 3.26–3.90 3.26 1.33–5.18
Health-related characteristics       
Self-rated health       
 Bad 3.07 2.70–3.44  < 0.001 2.82 2.25–3.39  < 0.001
 Fair 3.15 2.91–3.39 3.09 2.90–3.27
 Good 3.63 3.50–3.77 3.61 3.53–3.68
Physical health problems       
 No 3.61 3.47–3.74 0.015 3.57 3.48–3.65 0.019
 Yes 3.25 3.00–3.50 3.36 3.22–3.51
Mental health problems       
 No 3.54 3.42–3.66 0.019 3.65 3.58–3.73  < 0.001
 Yes 2.86 2.33–3.39 3.03 2.86–3.20
Total number of comorbidities       
 None 3.56 3.43–3.69 0.500 3.57 3.48–3.66 0.1427
 1 3.36 3.00–3.71 3.47 3.29–3.66
 2 +  3.29 2.83–3.76 3.36 3.03–3.70
Polypharmacy       
 No 3.55 3.42–3.67 0.039 3.53 3.44–3.61 0.093
 Yes 3.12 2.74–3.50 3.38 3.24–3.53
Behavioral characteristics
Binge drinking       
 Weekly 3.51 3.36–3.66 0.303 3.45 3.15–3.76 0.3978
 Monthly 3.52 3.25–3.79 3.38 3.09–3.66
 Less than once a month 3.17 2.81–3.54 3.60 3.46–3.75
 Never 3.54 3.44–3.64 3.49 3.40–3.58
Tobacco use       
 No 3.55 3.40–3.70 0.193 3.53 3.43–3.62 0.504
 Yes 3.39 3.20–3.58 3.48 3.37–3.59
Injecting drugs use       
 Never 3.48 3.36–3.60  < 0.001 3.50 3.41–3.58 0.069
 Yes, previously 4.41 4.10–4.72 3.62 3.47–3.78
 Yes, currently 3.46 3.24 2.91–3.58