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Table 1 Characteristics of respondents and univariable comparison of mean EQ5Dutility scores in people living with HIV in Spain (n = 400) and Romania (n = 170)

From: Quality of life in people living with HIV in Romania and Spain

  Romania Spain
Cohort (%) Ceiling effect* Mean EQ5Dutility Cohort (%) Ceiling effect* Mean EQ5Dutility
n (%) mean 95% CI p-value n (%) mean 95% CI p-value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age (years): median (IQR) 31 (30–39) 34.7% 0.85 0.83–0.87 0.641 52 (43–57) 46.6% 0.88 0.87–0.90 0.001
Gender           
 Men 43.5 41.9% 0.88 0.84–0.91 0.063 67.1 52.0% 0.89 0.87–0.91 0.026
 Women 56.5 29.2% 0.83 0.80–0.86 31.9 35.3% 0.86 0.83–0.88
 Other 0.0      1.0 50.0% 0.94 0.87–1.00
Ethnicity (Romania only)           
 Romanian 84.7 37.5% 0.86 0.84–0.89 0.045   N/A    
 Roma 15.5 19.2% 0.78 0.70–0.86      
Migrant status (Spain only)          
 No   N/A     71.8 47.5% 0.89 0.87–0.90 0.569
 Yes      28.3 44.2% 0.87 0.84–0.91
Sex orientation           0.002
 Heterosexual 97.6 34.0% 0.85 0.82–0.87  < 0.001 70.1 40.1% 0.86 0.84–0.88
 Homosexual/Bisexual 2.4 0.0% 0.80 0.70–0.86 29.9 62.4% 0.92 0.89–0.95
Educational level           
 No education 5.3 11.1% 0.75 0.66–0.85 0.088 1.8 60.0% 0.87 0.65–1.00 0.0042
 Primary 7.1 33.3% 0.87 0.79–0.94 25.8 31.9% 0.82 0.78–0.86
 Secondary 62.4 33.0% 0.84 0.81–0.88 54.2 50.0% 0.90 0.88–0.92
 University +  25.3 44.2% 0.88 0.84–0.92 18.2 55.9% 0.91 0.87–0.95
Employment           
 Full- or Part-time 13.7 56.2% 0.93 0.89–0.97  < 0.001 60.1 57.4% 0.92 0.90–0.94  < 0.001
 Unemployed 28.0 38.3% 0.88 0.85–0.92 22.9 30.9% 0.83 0.79–0.87
 Other (student, retired, disabled) 58.3 27.6% 0.81 0.78–0.85 17.0 28.6% 0.80 0.75–0.86
Stable housing           
 No 40.5 35.3% 0.85 0.81–0.89 0.828 13.7 30.8% 0.80 0.73–0.86 0.005
 Yes (own or rent) 59.5 34.0% 0.85 0.82–0.88 86.3 49.1% 0.90 0.88–0.91
Money for basic needs           
 Not always 62.4 26.4% 0.82 0.78–0.85  < 0.001 53.2 34.3% 0.84 0.81–0.86  < 0.001
 Always 37.7 48.4% 0.90 0.88–0.93 46.8 60.6% 0.93 0.91–0.95
HIV-related characteristics
Year of diagnosis           
 After 2010 15.4 26.9% 0.86 0.81–0.91 0.538 31.4 56.1% 0.92 0.90–0.94 0.003
 1995–2010 43.8 29.7% 0.83 0.79–0.87 33.3 46.9% 0.87 0.84–0.91
 Before 1995 40.8 42.0% 0.86 0.82–0.90 35.3 38.2% 0.86 0.83–0.89
ART status           
 No 1.2 0.0% 0.83 0.81–0.85 0.108 0.8 66.7% 0.86 0.59–1.00 0.859
 Yes 98.8 35.1% 0.85 0.83–0.88 99.2 46.5% 0.88 0.87–0.90
Adherence to ART          
 Fully adherent 83.9 38.3% 0.86 0.83–0.89 0.301 99.2 48.7% 0.89 0.87–0.90 0.435
 Not fully adherent 16.1 18.2% 0.82 0.75–0.89 0.9 33.3% 0.83 0.65–1.00
Health-related characteristics
Self-rated health           
 Bad 5.3 0.0% 0.67 0.56–0.77  < 0.001 3.3 0.0% 0.57 0.45–0.69  < 0.001
 Fair 22.4 13.2% 0.76 0.70–0.82 16.0 5.1% 0.72 0.67–0.76
 Good 72.4 43.9% 0.89 0.87–0.91 80.7 56.9% 0.93 0.92–0.94
Physical health problems           
 No 70.9 44.4% 0.89 0.87–0.92  < 0.001 70.7 54.4% 0.91 0.90–0.93  < 0.001
 Yes 29.1 14.6% 0.75 0.69–0.80 29.3 29.3% 0.81 0.77–0.85
Mental health problems           
 No 93.5 35.2% 0.85 0.83–0.88 0.292 80.5 58.3% 0.93 0.92–0.94  < 0.001
 Yes 6.5 27.3% 0.80 0.70–0.90 19.5 4.3% 0.70 0.65–0.75
Total number of comorbidities          
 None 75.9 39.5% 0.87 0.85–0.90  < 0.001 71.9 55.0% 0.92 0.91–0.94  < 0.001
 1 16.5 21.4% 0.79 0.72–0.86 18.4 25.0% 0.82 0.78–0.86
 2+ 7.7 15.4% 0.78 0.68–0.88 9.7 27.0% 0.78 0.70–0.85
Polypharmacy           
 No 88.2 38.7% 0.87 0.84–0.89 0.006 78.0 52.9% 0.91 0.89–0.92  < 0.001
 Yes 11.8 5.0% 0.72 0.62–0.82 22.0 23.2% 0.80 0.75–0.84
Behavioral characteristics
Binge drinking           
 Weekly 3.6 50.0% 0.83 0.80–0.87  < 0.001 6.0 30.4% 0.88 0.84–0.92 0.047
 Monthly 6.5 54.6% 0.87 0.83–0.91 6.5 39.1% 0.84 0.77–0.91
 Less than once a month 18.9 34.4% 0.93 0.87–0.98 24.7 56.5% 0.92 0.89–0.94
 Never 71.0 32.5% 0.94 0.89–0.99 62.9 46.8% 0.88 0.86–0.90
Tobacco use           
 No 65.9 38.4% 0.87 0.84–0.89 0.076 53.9 54.8% 0.91 0.89–0.93  < 0.001
 Yes 34.1 27.6% 0.82 0.77–0.87 46.2 38.3% 0.85 0.83–0.88
Injecting drugs use           
 Never 97.6 34.6% 0.85 0.82–0.87 0.159 77.6 51.4% 0.90 0.88–0.91 0.098
 Yes, previously 1.8 33.3% 0.91 0.81–1.00 18.0 35.3% 0.85 0.82–0.89
 Yes, currently 0.6 0.0% 0.88   4.4 23.5% 0.85 0.77–0.93  
  1. *Ceiling effect is the percentage of participants that reported perfect health (EQ5Dutility = 1)