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Table1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Association between glucocorticoids treatment and viral clearance delay in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Country Design Size Age (Median/median range, years) Glucocorticoids dose (Equivalent of MP) Glucocorticoids type Treatment timing (From illness onset, median days) Treatment duration (Median/range, days) Time frame of viral clearance delay (Follow-up)
Cao and Zhu et al. [20] China CC 87 NA NA NA NA NA 14-, 10-day
Chang and Zhao et al. [21] China CC 67 14–59 NA NA NA NA 16-day (16 days)
Chen and Li et al. [23] China RC 70 47–64 0.5–1 mg/kg/d (low dose); 1–2 mg/kg/d (medium-dose); 200–400 mg/d (high-dose) NA NA NA NA
Chen and Song et al. [22] China RC 371 63–65 Mean 49.5 mg/d DM, MP, PN Mean 14.1 Mean 9.1 NA
Chen and Zhu et al. [9] China RC 267 49 NA NA NA NA 45-day
Cogliati-Dezza and Oliva et al. [5] Italy CC 179 62 NA DM, MP NA NA 14-day
Ding and Feng et al. [24] China RC 82 49 NA NA NA NA NA
Fang and Mei et al. [25] China RC 55 39.9–60.6 Median 38 mg/d in general patients; 40 mg/d in severe patients MP NA 7 in general patients; 4.5 in severe patients NA
Feng and Li et al. [6] China CC 564 47 NA NA NA NA NA (50 days)
Fu and Luo et al. [26] China RC 33 41–65 1 mg/kg/d MP NA NA NA (≥ 22 days)
Gong and Guan et al. [27] China RC 34 33.8–38.2 1–2 mg/kg/d MP NA 5–10 NA
Hu and Li et al. [10] China CC 206 Mean 53.7 40 mg/d (low-dose); 80 mg/d (high-dose) MP NA NA 30-day
Hu and Yin et al. [28] China CC 183 49 Median 43.3 mg/d NA NA 4 20-day
Huang and Zhu et al. [11] China RC 309 45 40–160 mg/d MP NA NA NA (40 days)
Jeronimo and Farias et al. [29] Brazil RCT 283 Mean 55 1 mg/kg/day MP NA 5 5-, 7-day
Ji and Zhang et al. [30] China RC 490 61 1–2 mg/kg/day DM, MP, PN NA 3–5 14-, 28-day
Li and Cao et al. [31] China CC 66 47.5 NA MP NA NA 11-day
Li and Li et al. [12] China RC 475 42 20 or 40 mg/d MP, PS 2 (from admission) NA NA (50 days)
Li and Meng et al. [32] China RC 294 66 Median 40 mg/d DM, MP, HC, PN 0 (from ICU admission) 9 NA (90 days)
Liang and Chen et al. [33] China RC 966 60  ≤ 1–2 mg/kg/d MP NA  > 3 NA (≥ 50 days)
Liu and Li et al. [35] China RC 646 57 Median 80 mg/d DM, MP, PN 13 NA NA
Liu and Zhang et al. [34] China RC 774 64 Median 40 mg/d MP, PS 1 (from admission) 6 30-day
Lu and Liu et al. [36] China RC 374 47–51 Median 220 mg (cumulative dose) NA  ≤ 5 (from admission) 4 NA (≥ 40 days)
Ma and Qi et al. [37] China RC 72 Mean 60 40 or 80 mg/d MP NA 3 NA
Ma and Zeng et al. [38] China RC 368 Mean 46.2 Median 56.6 mg/d MP, PS 9 5 NA
Masia and Fernandez-Gonzalez et al. [39] Spain RC 77 63.5–71 250–500 mg/d MP NA 3 NA
Ni and Ding et al. [40] China RC 72 46–52 0.75–1.5 mg/kg/d MP NA NA NA
Qi and Yang et al. [41] China CC 147 42 NA NA NA NA 17-day
Shi and Wu et al. [42] China CC 99 54 Median 60 mg/d NA 8 NA 28-day
Shu and He et al. [43] China CC 83 43 NA NA NA NA 16-day
Spagnuolo and Guffanti et al. [44] Italy RC 149 63.5 Median of 0.38 mg/kg/d DM, MP, PN 1 (from admission) 9 14-, 14 to 28-, 28 to 40-, > 40-day
Wu and Hou et al. [45] China RC 382 Mean 60.7 NA DM, MP, PN NA NA NA
Xia and Xu et al. [46] China RC 49 NA 0.75–1.5 mg/kg/d MP  ≤ 3 (from admission) NA NA (≥ 10 days)
Xiong and Jin et al. [50] China RC 66 Mean 62 Median 400 mg (cumulative dose) NA 9 NA NA (≥ 30 days)
Xu and Chen et al. [47] China CC 113 52 0.5–1 mg/kg/d MP NA NA 15-day
Yan and Liu et al. [7] China CC 120 52 NA NA NA NA 23-day
Yuan and Xu et al. [8] China RC 132 43.7–52 Median 52.2 mg/d MP 8.3 10.8 NA
Zha and Li et al. [48] China RC 31 39 40–80 mg/d MP NA NA NA
Zuo and Liu et al.. [49] China CC 181 Mean 44.3 NA NA NA NA 21-day
  1. CC, case control; RC, retrospective cohort; RCT, randomized controlled trial; DM, dexamethasone; MP, methylprednisolone; PN, prednisone; PS, prednisolone; HC, hydrocortisone; NA, not available