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Table 2 Associations of clinical characteristics with the severity of COVID-19 in the training set

From: Severity-associated markers and assessment model for predicting the severity of COVID-19: a retrospective study in Hangzhou, China

  Milda Moderatea Severea OR (95% CI) P value
Number 21 72 11   
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years) 30.0 (14.5–40.5) 44.5 (34.3–57.0) 60.0 (45.0–72.0) 1.07 (1.04–1.11)  < 0.001
 Female 8 (38.1) 44 (61.1) 5 (45.5) 1.52 (0.66–3.48) 0.326
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.2 (18.1–25.4) 22.5 (20.4–25.1) 23.4 (20.4–24.0) 1.08 (0.96–1.22) 0.218
 Comorbidityb 1 (4.8) 15 (20.8) 7 (63.6) 8.09 (2.46–26.55)  < 0.001
Clinical symptoms
 Fever 10 (47.6) 49 (68.1) 10 (90.9) 3.11(1.26–7.66) 0.014
 Fatigue 0 (0) 5 (6.9) 1 (9.1) 2.89(0.49–16.95) 0.240
 Cough 7 (33.3) 34 (47.2) 5 (45.5) 1.47(0.64–3.39) 0.367
 Expectoration 2 (9.5) 5 (6.9) 2 (18.2) 1.51(0.34–6.65) 0.584
 Shortness of breath 1 (4.8) 6 (8.3) 1 (9.1) 1.51(0.32–7.22) 0.604
 Diarrhoea 1 (4.8) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.23(0.01–3.72) 0.301
 Myalgia 1 (4.8) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.23(0.01–3.72) 0.301
Laboratory tests
 WBC count (< 3.5 × 109/L) 1 (4.8) 5 (6.9) 2 (18.2) 2.66 (0.56–12.66) 0.220
 Lymphocyte count (< 1.1 × 109/L) 5 (23.8) 31 (43.1) 7 (63.6) 2.73 (1.11–6.68) 0.028
 Eosinophil count (< 0.02 × 109/L) 4 (19.0) 39 (54.2) 9 (81.8) 5.63 (2.08–15.18) 0.001
 Platelet count (< 125 × 109/L) 0 (0) 5 (6.9) 3 (27.3) 7.52 (1.62–34.98) 0.010
 CRP (> 10 mg/L) 2 (9.5) 30 (41.7) 10 (90.9) 12.08(3.38–43.21)  < 0.001
 LDH (> 250 U/L) 0 (0) 10 (14.1) 6 (54.5) 11.55 (3.14–42.52)  < 0.001
 SAA (> 10 mg/L) 11 (52.4) 60 (83.3) 11 (100) 5.97 (2.13–16.67) 0.001
 Calcium (< 2.2 mmol/L) 0 (0) 19 (27.5) 9 (81.8) 22.69 (4.77–108.01)  < 0.001
 Potassium (< 3.5 mmol/L) 4 (19.0) 20 (27.8) 3 (27.3) 1.38 (0.53–3.56) 0.506
 Phosphorus (< 0.81 mmol/L) 0 (0) 14 (20.3) 3 (27.3) 3.58 (1.10–11.6) 0.034
 Chlorine (< 99 mmol/L) 0 (0) 9 (12.5) 2 (18.2) 3.36 (0.85–13.24) 0.083
 Sodium (< 137 mmol/L) 6 (28.6) 25 (34.7) 7 (63.6) 2.17(0.89–5.28) 0.090
 ALB (< 40 g/L) 3 (14.3) 30 (41.7) 11 (100) 12.12(3.41–43.11)  < 0.001
 ALB/GLB (< 1.2) 0 (0) 18 (25.0) 7 (63.6) 10.34 (2.98–35.85)  < 0.001
 PALB (< 180 mg/L for females and < 200 mg/L for males) 7 (35.0) 49 (74.2) 11 (100) 7.70 (2.74–21.68)  < 0.001
 TG (> 1.7 mmol/L) 5 (23.8) 13 (18.1) 3 (27.3) 0.98 (0.35–2.73) 0.975
 TC (< 3 mmol/L) 0 (0) 3 (4.2) 2 (18.2) 7.41 (1.16–47.21) 0.034
 HDL-C (< 1.1 mmol/L for females and < 1.04 mmol/L for males) 4 (19.0) 32 (44.4) 8 (72.7) 4.06 (1.57–10.52) 0.004
 RBP (< 23 mg/L) 5(25.0) 36(54.5) 8 (80.0) 4.20 (1.60–11.03) 0.004
 Apo A1 (< 1 g/L) 10 (50.0) 43 (65.2) 10 (100) 3.20 (1.26–8.15) 0.015
 GLB (> 40 g/L) 0 (0) 3 (4.2) 0 (0) 1.48 (0.12–17.76) 0.756
 FIB (> 3.5 g/L) 4 (19.0) 30 (41.7) 9 (81.8) 5.00 (1.84–13.54) 0.002
 D-dimer (> 0.55 mg/L) 2 (9.5) 12 (16.7) 6 (54.5) 4.91 (1.57–15.41) 0.006
 SaO2 (≤ 93%) 0 (0) 4 (5.7) 3 (27.3) 8.33 (1.64–42.30) 0.011
 PaO2/FiO2 (≤ 300 mmHg) 0 (0) 4 (5.7) 3 (27.3) 8.33 (1.64–42.30) 0.011
 PaCO2 (< 35 mmHg) 1 (6.2) 6 (8.6) 3 (27.3) 3.43 (0.82–14.41) 0.093
 ALT (> 40 U/L for females and > 50 U/L for males) 4 (19.0) 6 (8.3) 2 (18.2) 0.68 (0.19–2.41) 0.553
 AST (> 35 U/L for females and > 40 U/L for males) 4 (19.0) 8 (11.1) 5 (45.5) 2.16 (0.69–6.78) 0.188
 ADA (> 15 U/L) 1 (5.0) 4 (6.1) 4 (40.0) 7.95 (1.79–35.24) 0.006
 γ-GTP (> 45 U/L for females and > 60 U/L for males) 2 (33.3) 5 (12.2) 1 (14.3) 0.43 (0.08–2.46) 0.344
 Troponin T (> 0.014 ng/mL) 1 (10.0) 2(4.3) 2 (25.0) 3.24 (0.46–22.65) 0.236
 Serum iron(< 7.8umol/L for females and > 10.6 umol/L for males) 3 (30.0) 17 (40.5) 5 (71.4) 2.64 (0.79–8.78) 0.113
 Serum creatinine (> 81 umol/L for females and > 111 umol/L for males) 0 (0) 4 (5.6) 1 (9.1) 3.26 (0.48–21.97) 0.225
 Urine creatinine (< 2470umol/L for females and < 3450 umol/L for males) 1 (9.1) 3 (5.7) 0 (0) 0.49 (0.05–4.44) 0.524
 Reduced haemoglobin (> 7%) 0 (0) 4(5.7) 3(27.3) 8.33 (1.64–42.30) 0.011
 Lactate (> 1.6 mmol/L) 4(25.0) 14(20.0) 3(27.3) 1.01 (0.35–2.94) 0.982
 IgG (> 16 g/L) 0 (0) 3 (5.4) 1 (12.5) 4.45 (0.53–37.11) 0.168
 GPDA (< 44 U/L) 0 (0) 1 (1.5) 0 (0) 1.51 (0.02–105.39) 0.849
 FFA (> 769 umol/L) 1 (5.0) 3 (4.5) 0 (0) 0.60 (0.08–4.67) 0.625
 β2-microglobulin (> 3 mg/L) 0 (0) 6 (8.5) 1 (9.1) 2.65 (0.51–13.83) 0.248
 Uric acid (< 154.7umol/L for females and < 208.3 umol/L for males) 1 (4.8) 7 (9.7) 2 (18.2) 2.39 (0.58–9.89) 0.230
 eGFR (< 90 ml/min) 1 (4.8) 16 (22.2) 3 (27.3) 2.66 (0.89–7.96) 0.079
 DBIL (> 6.84 umol/L) 5 (23.8) 15 (20.8) 5 (45.5) 1.64 (0.61–4.37) 0.324
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, WBC White blood cell, CRP C-reactive protein, LDH Lactate dehydrogenase, SAA Serum amyloid A, ALB Albumin, ALB/GLB Albumin/Globulin, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, PALB Prealbumin; RBP Retinol binding protein, Apo A1 Apolipoprotein A1, GLB Globulin, FIB Fibrinogen, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, SaO2 = Oxygen saturation, PaO2 Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, FiO2 Inspired oxygen fraction, ADA Adenosine deaminase; PaCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, γ-GTP γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, IgG Immunoglobulin G, GPDA = Glycyl-proline-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, FFA Free fatty acids, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, DBIL Direct bilirubin
  2. aData were presented as median (IQR), or n (%) where appropriate
  3. bComorbidity was defined as having at least one of the following diseases: diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, severe congenital disease, cancer and chronic liver, renal, respiratory disease