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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings of the 35 patients at admission

From: Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

  Total (n = 35) With HCQ/CQ (n = 14) Without HCQ/CQ (n = 21) P value
Age 62.20 ± 11.88 61.00 ± 13.00 63.00 ± 11.33 0.633
Male 23 10 13 0.721
Disease duration (days) 13.00 ± 7.24 13.00 ± 7.14 13.00 ± 7.49 1.000
Clinical manifestation at beginning
 Fever 27 10 17 0.685
 Fatigue 25 11 14 0.704
 Cough 26 12 14 0.262
 Diarrhea 8 3 5 1.000
 Myalgia/arthralgia 10 7 3 0.053
 Fever at admission 7 2 5 0.676
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 13 7 6 0.199
 Diabetes mellites 5 2 3 1.000
 Carcinomaa 5 3 2 0.369
 Stroke 1 1 0 0.400
 Coronary artery disease 2 1 1 1.000
 Lung diseaseb 6 1 5 0.366
 HBV infection 7 3 4 1.000
Disease severity status
 General 19 7 12 0.678
 Severe/critical 16 7 9  
CURB-65 score
 0 15 6 9 1.000
 1–5 20 8 12  
Laboratory results
 WBC (× 109/L) 6.13 ± 2.45 6.27 ± 2.96 6.05 ± 2.12 0.801
 Neu (× 109/L) 4.33 ± 2.38 4.68 ± 2.88 4.10 ± 2.01 0.490
 Lym (× 109/L) 1.08 ± 0.52 1.05 ± 0.56 1.09 ± 0.50 0.828
 Neu/Lym 5.27 ± 4.31 6.16 ± 5.13 4.69 ± 3.67 0.329
 Hb (g/L) 123.17 ± 18.43 126.14 ± 19.22 121.19 ± 18.08 0.444
 PLT (× 109/L) 266.37 ± 111.96 283.86 ± 110.58 254.71 ± 114.04 0.459
 ALT (U/L) 33.14 ± 28.69 27.00 ± 21.31 37.24 ± 32.56 0.308
 AST (U/L) 32.11 ± 20.96 27.00 ± 13.72 35.52 ± 24.37 0.244
 Alb (g/L) 33.26 ± 5.60 31.94 ± 6.51 34.14 ± 4.87 0.260
 LDH (U/L) 282.69 ± 126.59 310.00 ± 130.40 264.48 ± 123.78 0.304
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.33 ± 15.88 86.17 ± 12.15 91.43 ± 17.92 0.345
 > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 20 7 13 0.486
 ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 15 7 8  
Fibrinogen (g/L) 5.17 ± 1.59 5.82 ± 1.19 4.74 ± 1.66 0.045
d-Dimer (ug/mL FEU) 3.63 ± 5.42 4.30 ± 6.65 3.18 ± 4.54 0.556
 > 1.0 ug/mL FEU 21 8 13 0.778
 ≤ 1.0 ug/mL FEU 14 6 8  
NT-pro-BNP (ug/mL) 253.20 ± 346.51 318.29 ± 520.19 209.81 ± 152.60 0.372
cTnI (pg/mL) 9.11 ± 9.51 8.43 ± 9.38 9.56 ± 9.79 0.736
ESR (mm/h) (/n) 47.75 ± 26.74 (32) 58.62 ± 19.90 (13) 40.32 ± 28.70 (19) 0.056
hsCRP (mg/L) 33.89 ± 38.61 31.47 ± 24.06 35.50 ± 46.39 0.767
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.17 ± 0.46 0.10 ± 0.08 0.21 ± 0.60 0.507
 ≥ 0.1 ng/mL 9 5 4 0.432
 < 0.1 ng/mL 26 9 17  
Ferritin (ug/L) (n) 819.36 ± 628.02 (31) 689.45 ± 494.53 (13) 913.18 ± 707.92 (18) 0.336
IL-6 (ug/mL) (n) 14.49 ± 15.62 (31) 13.28 ± 9.27 (13) 15.37 ± 19.19 (18) 0.721
Other respiratory pathogen infectionc 21 10 11 0.260
Imaging findings     
 GGO 30 14 16 0.069
 Consolidation 19 7 12 0.678
 Bilateral pulmonary infiltration 34 14 20 1.000
 Interstitial changes 17 7 10 0.890
 Hydrothorax 7 1 6 0.203
  1. HBV hepatitis B virus, WBC white blood cell, Neu neutrophil, Lym lymphocyte, Hb hemoglobulin, PLT platelet, ALT alanine transaminase, AST oxaloacetic transaminase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, eGFR estimated glomerular filter rate, NT-pro-BNP N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide, cTnI cardiac troponin I, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hsCRP high sensitivity C reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, GGO ground glass opacity, HCQ hydroxychloroquine, CQ chloroquine
  2. aIncluding carcinoma in the stomach (n = 2), urinary bladder (n = 1), bone (n = 1) and breast (n = 1)
  3. bLung disease refers to chronic obstructive lung disease (n = 3), emphysema (n = 2), bronchiectasis (n = 1), lung fibrosis (n = 1) and bullae (n = 1)
  4. cOther concurrent respiratory pathogen infection with a specific serum immunoglobulin M positive confirmed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay includes type A influenza (n = 18), type B influenza (n = 2), mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 2) and chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 1)