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Table 5 Results of included studies

From: Reducing burden from respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants: a systematic review of interventions in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries

  Intervention Outcome
Author (Year) Type of intervention Intervention groups Vaccination Allocation Outcome Outcome measure Cohort results Percentage (95% CI) Relative Risks calculated according to absolutes given
De Vallière et al. (2011) [69] Different response strategies to varicella outbreaks in refugee housing No response-strategy n.i Time-span sampled Varicella outbreak prevention Number of secondary cases among refugees at same housing, attack rate (%) 16/126 12.8%
(95% CI: 7.4–19.8%)
RR = 1
(control group)
Serotesting refugees at same housing as outbreak Seronegative tested refugees 7/248 2.8%
(95% CI: 1.1–5.7%)
Getting infected: RR = 0.22
(95% CI: 0.09–0.53)
General-vaccination All refugees aged 15–39 without history 0/966 0%
(95% CI: 0–0.38%)
Getting infected:
RR = 0.004
(95% CI: 0.0002 to 0.066)
Pallasch et al. (2005) [67] Door-to-door MMR vaccination campaign supported by keypersons targeting children aged from 15 months to 10 years Before campaign (2002) In all indicated cases following national standards Pre-/post-evaluation MMR vaccination Vaccination-coverage (%) for at least one and two doses of vaccine respectively
(results only measured in children during school preterm examinations)
21/38 at least one 55%
(95% CI: 38.3–71.3%)
Having received after campaign
At least one:
RR = 1.51
(95% CI: 1.11–2.08)
Two doses
RR = 7.66
(95% CI: 2.52–23.3)
Of vaccination
3/38 two doses 8%
(95% CI: 1.6–21.1%)
During campaign (2003) 34/48 at least one 70%
(95% CI: 55.9–83.1%)
21/48 two doses 44%
(95% CI: 29.5–58.8%)
After campaign (2004) 36/43 at least one 84%
(95% CI: 69.3–93.1%)
26/43 two doses 60%
(95% CI: 44.4–75.0%)
Brock-Mann et al. (2016) [68] Community housing based vaccination concept Housing excluded from campaign In all indicated cases following national standards Sampled by residency MMR and DPPT vaccination Percentage of persons with at least one vaccination (%) 71/704 10%
(95% CI: 7.9–12.7%)
RR = 1
(control group)
Housing included in campaign 571/1552 36.8%
(95% CI: 33.8–39.9%)
Getting vaccinated: RR = 3.65
(95% CI: 2.89–4.59)
Koop et al. (2001) [66] Childhood vaccination campaigns in high vs. Low turn-over populations Unstable population All children under 4 years of age Sampled by time and place of arrival Measles, DPPT, BCG Vaccination Change in vaccination coverage between first and second campaign in children under 4 years (10% of total study population) From first campaign 2567/2760 to 1387/1900 after second campaign -20% -
From 93.01% (95% CI: 91.9%- 93.4%) to 73% (95% CI: 70.9–74.9%)
Being vaccinated RR = 0.79
(95% CI: 0.77–0.81)
Stable population From first campaign 2867/3150 to 3804/4180 after second campaign Stable at about 91% (95% CI: 89.9–91.9%) to 91% Being vaccinated
RR = 1.02
(95% CI: 1.001–1.03)
Coady et al. (2008) [58] Multilevel Influenza informational campaign Before campaign None Pre-/post-evaluation Influenza vaccination Interest in vaccination against influenza (%) 2995/3744 (80%) 80%
(95% CI: 78.7–81.3%)
Interest in vaccination RR = 1.175
(95% CI: 1.15–1.20)
After informational campaign 2897/3082 (94%) 94%
(95% CI: 93.1–94.8%)
Hoppe et al. (2011) [60] Influenza informational and vaccination campaign in birth clinic After informational campaign In all willing patients Sampled by choice of birth clinic Influenza vaccination Influenza vaccination coverage (%) 120/157 (76%) 76%
(95% CI: 69.0–82.8%)
Being vaccinated RR = 1.565
(95% CI: 1.43–1.71)
Cited national data N.i 5538/11337 (48.8%) 48,8%
(95% CI: 47.9–49.7%)
Rodriguez-Rieiro et al. (2011) [59] National Influenza vaccination campaign Before vaccination campaign In all indicated cases following national standards Pre-/post-evaluation Influenza vaccination Odds of getting influenza vaccination for immigrants; reported: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97–1.25) 163/2055 (7.9%) 7,9%
(95% CI: 6.8–9.2%)
Being vaccinated RR = 1.27
(95% CI: 1.02–1.58)
After vaccination campaign 138/1371 (10%) 10%
(95% CI: 8.5–11.8%)
Larson et al. (2009) [56] Door-to-door based Influenza informational campaign Before informational campaign None Pre-/post-evaluation Influenza vaccination Reported households with at least one vaccinated person (%) 269/422 (63.7%) 63.7%
(95% CI: 58.9–68.3%)
Having vaccinated person living in household RR = 1.16
(95% CI: 1.06–1.27)
After campaign 312/422 (73.9%) 73.9%
(95% CI: 69.5–78.1%)
Larson et al. (2010) [57] Door-to-door based influenza, influenza-like illness (= ILI) and upper respiratory infections (= URI) informational, prevention and campaign Group E (informational campaign only) Before None Randomly sampled by households Influenza vaccination Mean change in vaccination coverage pre-/post campaign (%) 191/904 (21.1%) 21.1%
(95% CI: 18.5–23.9%)
RR = 1.93
(95% CI: 1.67–2.24)
After 369/904 (40.8%) 40,8%
(95% CI: 37.6–44.1%)
Group 1 (additionally hand sanitiser) Before 180/946 (19%) 19%
(95% CI: 16.6–21.7%)
RR = 3.0
(95% CI: 2.60–3.46)
After 540 /946 (57.1%) 57.1%
(95% CI: 53.9–60.3%)
Group 2 (additionally hand sanitiser and face masks) Before 210/938 (22.4%) 22.4%
(95% CI: 19.8–25.2%)
RR = 1.94
(95% CI: 1.69–2.23)
After 408/938 (43.5%) 43.5%
(95% CI: 40.3–46.7%)
Group E Prevention of URI**, ILI*** and influenza URI**-rate/1000 person-weeks 35.38 95% CI: 33.7–37.1 RR = 1
(control-group)
Group 1 29.06 95% CI: 27.6–30.6 RR = 0.82
(95% CI: 0.76–0.88)
Group 2 38.91 95% CI: 37.2–40.7 RR = 1.1
(95% CI: 1.03–1.18)
Group E ILI***-rate/1000 person-weeks 2.26 95% CI: 1.8–2.7 RR = 1
(control-group)
Group 1 1.93 95% CI: 1.6–2.4 RR = 0.85
(95% CI: 0.64–1.14)
Group 2 1.56 95% CI: 1.2–1.9 RR = 0.69
(95% CI: 0.51–0.93)
Group E Influenza-rate/1000 person-weeks 0.52 95% CI: 0.33–0.77 RR = 1
(control-group)
Group 1 0.60 95% CI: 0.39–0.85 RR = 1.15
(95% CI: 0.65–2.07)
Group 2 0.49 95% CI: 0.32–0.73 RR = 0.96
(95% CI: 0.52–1.75)
  1. **URI = Upper respiratory infection
  2. ***ILI = Influenza-like illness