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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of people living with HIV screened for diabetes in South Africa

From: Clinic-based diabetes screening at the time of HIV testing and associations with poor clinical outcomes in South Africa: a cohort study

  Overall HbA1c ≤ 5.6% HbA1c 5.7–6.4% HbA1c ≥ 6.5% p-value
(n = 1207)
N (%) or mean ± SD
(n = 968)
N (%) or mean ± SD
(n = 213)
N (%) or mean ± SD
(n = 26)
N (%) or mean ± SD
Sociodemographics
 Male 536 (44.4) 430 (44.4) 94 (44.1) 12 (46.2) 0.981
 Age (years) 31.3 ± 9.5 32.5 ± 9.0 35.1 ± 10.5 43.0 + 11.4  < 0.001
 Zulu or Xhosa (n = 1205) 1187 (98.5) 954 (98.8) 208 (97.7) 24 (96.2) 0.151
 Married 63 (5.2) 44 (4.6) 17 (8.0) 2 (7.7) 0.106
 Completed high school or higher degree 733 (60.7) 588 (60.7) 133 (62.4) 12 (46.2) 0.276
 Employed ≥ 20 h/week 250 (20.7) 206 (21.3) 39 (18.3) 5 (19.2) 0.615
 Income < 2000 ZAR/month (n = 1203) 727 (60.4) 589 (61.1) 120 (56.3) 18 (69.2) 0.284
 Food insecure (mild, moderate, severe) 12 (1.0) 10 (1.0) 2 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 0.1.00
 < 5 km from clinic 804 (66.7) 633 (65.5) 153 (71.8) 18 (69.2) 0.195
 Current smoker 252 (20.9) 211 (21.8) 37 (17.4) 5 (15.4) 0.272
 Current alcohol use 437 (36.3) 365 (37.8) 69 (32.4) 3 (11.5) 0.009
 Prior diabetes diagnosis (n = 538) 7 (1.3) 6 (1.3) 0 (0) 1 (16.7) 0.082
  Uses insulin 2 (28.6) 1 (20) 0 (0) 1 (100) 0.286
 Self-reported liver disease 4 (0.3) 3 (0.3) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 0.587
 Self-reported kidney disease 20 (1.7) 14 (1.5) 5 (2.4) 1 (3.9) 0.218
Clinical characteristics and laboratory testing
 Karnofsky score (n = 1368) 87.8 ± 5.9 88.1 ± 5.7 87.3 ± 6.1 84.2 ± 8.6 0.002
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 6.7 2705 ± 6.5 8.8 ± 6.7 31.3 ± 10.5  
  < 25 522 (43.3) 436 (45.0) 79 (37.1) 7 (34.6)  < 0.001
  25–29.9 322 (26.7) 275 (28.4) 38 (17.8) 9 (34.5)  
  ≥ 30 363 (30.1) 257 (26.5) 96 (45.1) 10 (38.5)  
 Hypertension 255 (21.1) 210 (21.7) 37 (17.4) 15 (30.8) 0.179
  Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 93.3 ± 16.1 92.7 ± 15.3 94.8 ± 17.6 104.4 ± 20.9  < 0.001
 Hepatitis B (n = 1197) 74 (6.8) 60 (6.3) 13 (5.7) 2 (8.0) 0.898
 Anemia (n = 1189) 571 (43.5) 403 (42.2) 100 (48.1) 14 (56.0) 0.131
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) (n = 1189) 12.4 ± 2.1 12.4 ± 2.3 12.3 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 2.3 0.316
  Women 11.6 ± 1.7 11.6 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.6 10.9 ± 1.9 0.194
  Men 13.4 ± 2.1 13.6 ± 2.1 13.0 ± 2.1 13.3 ± 1.8 0.025
 CD4 count (cells/mm3) (n = 1201)a 353 [209–545] 365 [222–552] 307 [179–496] 324.5 [129–598]  
 < 200 281 (23.4) 214 (22.2) 59 (28.1) 8 (30.8) 0.102
 200–350 315 (26.2) 247e (25.6) 62 (29.5) 6 (23.1)  
 > 350 605 (50.4) 504 (52.2) 89 (42.4) 12 (46.2)  
  1. P-values obtained using chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables
  2. aMedian [interquartile range]