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Table 2 Comparison of epidemiological characteristics between before (2008–2015) and after (2017–2019) introduction of EV71 vaccines in Yunnan Province

From: Epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Yunnan Province, China, 2008–2019

Items Pre-vaccine introduction (2008–2015)
n = 400,704
Post-vaccine introduction (2017–2019)
n = 277,731
X2 test
P value
Sex    < 0.01
 Female 164,082 (40.95) 116,755 (42.04)  
 Male 236,622 (59.05) 160,976 (57.96)  
Age    < 0.01
 0–0.5 4647 (1.16) 2909 (1.05)  
 0.6–2.9 229,931 (57.38) 157,810 (56.82)  
 3–6.9 149,927 (37.42) 104,597 (37.66)  
 7–14.9 15,049 (3.76) 11,223 (4.04)  
 ≥ 15 1150 (0.29) 1192 (0.43)  
 Median (IQR) 2.5 (1.6,3.7) 2.5 (1.6, 4.0) < 0.01a
Area    < 0.01
 Central 187,087 (46.70) 104,454 (37.61)  
 Northeastern 33,648 (8.40) 33,311 (11.99)  
 Northwestern 82,590 (20.60) 62,432 (22.48)  
 Southern 97,379 (24.30) 77,534 (27.92)  
Case classification    < 0.01
 Mild 393,261 (98.14) 275,995 (99.37)  
 Severe 7316 (1.83) 1724 (0.62)  
 Death 127 (0.03) 12 (0.01)  
Pathogen    < 0.01
 EV71 14,208 (44.1) 3239 (14.41)  
 CV-A16 12,987 (40.3) 6307 (28.06)  
 Others 5052 (15.7) 12,929 (57.53)  
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. aRank sum test