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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: School-based surveillance of acute infectious disease in children: a systematic review

Author Year of Publication Country Organism/ syndrome Prospective or retrospective School ages Sample size Specificity of absence Frequency of data submissions
Aldridge et al [51] 2016 UK Seasonal influenza Prospective 11-16 yrs 27 schools Medical a Weekly
Besculides et al [39] 2005 USA Seasonal influenza Retrospective 5-18 yrs 1160 schools All cause Daily
Bollaerts et al. [21] 2010 Belgium Pandemic influenza Prospective 3-18 yrs ~  1 million pupils Illness Weekly
Chu et al [52] 2013 Canada Pandemic influenza Retrospective 4-14 yrs 8 PHUs b Variable Not specified
Crawford et al [40] 2011 USA Pandemic influenza Prospective 5-12 yrs 80 schools All cause Daily
Kara et al [43] 2012 UK Pandemic influenza Retrospective 4-18 yrs 373 schools Illness Weekly
Kightlinger et al [44] 2013 USA Pandemic influenza Prospective 5-18 yrs 187 schools Illness Weekly
Kom Mogto et al [49] 2012 Canada Pandemic influenza Prospective 6-17 yrs 3432 schools Syndrome-specific Daily
Lenaway et al [45] 1995 USA Seasonal influenza Prospective 5-18 yrs 44 schools Illness Weekly
Ma et al [46] 2015 Sweden Seasonal influenza Retrospective 6-16 yrs. c 500 schools Illness Not specified
Mann et al [41] 2011 USA Pandemic influenza Prospective 5-18 yrs 349 schools All cause Daily
Mook et al [47] 2007 UK Seasonal influenza Prospective 4-16 yrs 11 schools Illness Daily
Schmidt et al [48] 2010 UK Seasonal influenza Retrospective 5-11 yrs 6 schools Illness Not specified
Suzue et al [50] 2012 Japan Pandemic influenza Retrospective 3-18 yrs 142 schools Syndrome specific Daily
Williams et al. [42] 2013 USA Pandemic influenza Prospective 5-17 yrs 216 schools All cause + syndrome specific Weekly
  1. a Medical absences include illness absence and absence to attend medical appointments
  2. b Public Health Units (PHUs) varied in size and were broadly divided into large PHUs (population > 400,000) and small PHUs (population ≤ 400,000). Each PHU had a custom surveillance system to measure school absenteeism, collecting data on all cause absenteeism (8 PHUs), illness absenteeism (1 PHU) and respiratory illness absence (1 PHU) from schools within their area
  3. c Not clearly specified. The school ages noted are for compulsory education in the country of study