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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of viral pneumonia between immunocompetent and immunocompromised group

From: Characteristics of viral pneumonia in non-HIV immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients: a retrospective cohort study

Variables Total, N = 806 Immunocompromised
group, n = 370
Immunocompetent group, n = 436 P-Value
Sex, female, n (%) 290 (36.0) 127 (34.3) 163 (37.4) 0.367
Age, median (IQR) 62.0 (49.0–71.0) 60.0 (49.0–68.0) 63.0 (49.3–75.0) 0.003
Symptoms and signs, n (%)
 Fever 608 (75.4) 276 (74.6) 332 (76.1) 0.610
 Cough 764 (94.8) 342 (92.4) 422 (96.8) 0.006
 Expectoration 732 (90.8) 322 (87.0) 410 (94.0) 0.001
 Dyspnea 542 (67.2) 245 (66.2) 297 (68.1) 0.566
Laboratory examination
 White blood cell, × 109/L (IQR) 7.85 (5.62–11.34) 8.20 (5.73–11.71) 7.55 (5.43–10.91) 0.086
 Neutrophils, ×109/L (IQR) 6.17 (3.82–9.22) 6.73 (4.31–9.80) 5.52 (3.51–8.95) 0.014
 Lymphocyte, ×109/L (IQR) 0.95 (0.56–1.52) 0.84 (0.45–1.40) 1.03 (0.61–1.58) 0.001
 Persistent lymphocytopenia 319 (39.6) 177 (47.8) 142 (32.6) < 0.001
 Mean hemoglobin±SD, g/L 117.8 ± 24.5 110.6 ± 23.6 123.9 ± 23.6 < 0.001
 Mean albumin±SD, g/L 34.4 ± 6.6 33.5 ± 6.6 35.2 ± 6.5 < 0.001
 Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 302 (217–501) 357 (245–555) 263 (199–454) < 0.001
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 5.95 (4.18–9.61) 6.69 (4.61–11.62) 5.39 (3.90–7.89) < 0.001
 D-Dimer, mmol/L 1.61 (0.69–4.32) 2.06 (0.84–9.42) 1.37 (0.58–3.10) < 0.001
 Procalcitonin, ng/ml 0.31 (0.17–0.82) 0.32 (0.16–0.72) 0.31 (0.18–0.94) 0.372
 Oxygenation index 203 (118–289) 186 (113–289) 209 (126–292) 0.401
 Severe pneumonia index score 78 (59–103) 83 (62–107) 75 (56–99) 0.001
 CURB65 score > 1 261 (32.4) 117 (31.6) 144 (33.0) 0.671
Underlying Diseases, n (%)
 Without underlying disease 106 (13.2) 0 (0) 106 (24.3) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 194 (24.1) 103 (27.8) 91 (20.9) 0.021
 Tumor 62 (7.7) 41 (11.1) 21 (4.8) 0.001
 Connective tissue diseasea 140 (17.4) 134 (36.2) 6 (1.4) < 0.001
 Interstitial lung disease 210 (26.1) 165 (44.6) 45 (10.3) < 0.001
 Bronchiectasis 28 (3.5) 6 (1.6) 22 (5.0) 0.008
 Bronchial asthma 17 (2.1) 6 (1.6) 11 (2.5) 0.375
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 85 (10.5) 24 (6.5) 61 (14.0) 0.001
 Cirrhosis 5 (0.6) 5 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.015
 Leukemia 7 (0.9) 7 (1.9) 0 (0) 0.004
 Lymphoma 17 (2.1) 16 (4.3) 1 (0.2) < 0.001
 Nephrotic syndrome or chronic glomerulonephritis 50 (6.2) 46 (12.4) 4 (0.9) < 0.001
 Chronic renal failure 45 (5.6) 29 (7.8) 16 (3.7) 0.003
 After bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 5 (0.6) 5 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.015
 Solid organ transplant 60 (7.4) 60 (16.2) 0 (0) < 0.001
 Current smoker or ex-smoker 287 (35.6) 128 (34.6) 159 (36.5) 0.599
Bronchoalveolar lavage, n (%) 609 (75.6) 271 (73.2) 338 (77.5) 0.159
Treatment, before admission, n (%)
 Antibiotics 665 (82.5) 280 (75.7) 385 (88.3) < 0.001
 Antiviral drugs 164 (20.3) 83 (22.4) 81 (18.6) 0.176
Treatment, during hospitalization, n (%)  
 Anti - Pseudomonas aeruginosa drugs 627 (77.8) 295 (79.7) 332 (76.1) 0.223
 Voriconazole or caspofungin 288 (35.7) 181 (48.9) 107 (24.5) < 0.001
 Ganciclovir 254 (31.5) 221 (59.7) 33 (7.6) < 0.001
 Trimethoprim 207 (25.7) 193 (52.2) 14 (3.2) < 0.001
Complications, n (%)
 Noninvasive ventilation 146 (18.1) 90 (24.3) 56 (12.8) < 0.001
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 234 (29.0) 98 (26.5) 136 (31.2) 0.183
 Mechanical ventilation 310 (38.5) 141 (38.1) 169 (38.8) 0.982
 Respiratory failure during admission 397 (49.3) 186 (50.3) 211 (48.4) 0.379
 ICU admission 349 (43.3) 156 (42.2) 193 (44.3) 0.532
 Septic shock during hospitalization 170 (21.1) 91 (24.6) 79 (18.1) 0.025
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 58 (7.2) 24 (6.5) 34 (7.8) 0.922
 Hospital mortality 180 (22.3) 98 (26.5) 82 (18.8) 0.008
  1. aConnective tissue disorders: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, systemic sclerosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, etc.