Skip to main content

Table 4 Distribution of antibiotics resistance and virulence factors among in- and out-patients

From: Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  In-patient, n/N (%) Out-patient, n/N (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
A. Main antibiotic groups
 Aminoglycosides 403/1432 (28.1) 478/1637 (29.2) 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 0.631
 Sulfonamides 610/1021 (59.7) 509/867 (58.7) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 0.817
 Cyclines 416/614 (67.8) 82/107 (76.6) 0.88 (0.65–1.21) 0.441
 Fosfomycin 0 9/107 (8.4) 11.3 (0.21–603.0) 0.232
 Nitrofurans 130/952 (13.7) 167/534 (31.3) 0.44 (0.34–0.56) < 0.0001
 Quinolones 1333/2217 (60.1) 623/1739 (35.8) 1.68 (1.50–1.88) < 0.0001
 Beta-lactams 2244/5622 (39.9) 2166/6342 (34.2) 0.86 (0.80–0.92) < 0.0001
B. Beta-lactams classes
 Aminopenicillins 846/1117 (75.7) 311/440 (70.7) 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 0.427
 Carbapenems 2/659 (0.3) 5/689 (0.7) 0.41 (0.8–2.16) 0.298
 Monobactams 77/150 (51.3) 1/204 (0.5) 104.7 (14.4–761.4) < 0.0001
 Beta-lactam+Inhibitors 273/754 (36.2) 331/796 (41.6) 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 0.150
 Cephalosporins 1046/2942 (35.6) 1518/4213 (36.0) 1.01 (0.93–1.11) 0.776
C. Cephalosporins classes
 1GCs 210/491 (42.8) 160/462 (34.6) 1.24 (0.97–1.57) 0.087
 2GCs 118/518 (22.8) 375/894 (41.9) 0.54 (0.43–0.69) < 0.0001
 3GCs 571/1648 (34.7) 850/2190 (38.8) 0.89 (0.89–1.01) 0.072
 4GCs 147/285 (51.6) 133/667 (19.9) 2.59 (1.97–3.40) < 0.0001
D. Virulence factors groups
 Adhesins 1635/3309 (49.4) 681/1739 (39.2) 1.3 (1.13–1.40) < 0.0001
 Siderophore systems 276/428 (64.5) 371/1121 (33.1) 1.9 (1.61–2.36) < 0.0001
 Toxins 312/1418 (22.0) 217/1246 (17.4) 1.3 (1.05–1.53) 0.016
 Immune suppressors 200/276 (72.5) 674/1339 (50.3) 1.4 (1.17–1.77) 0.001