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Table 2 Meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance for UPEC isolates from urinary tract infections

From: Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antibiotics No of studies n/N Random model Heterogeneity Egger’s test
% (95% CI) P Q P I2 t P
Amikacin 8 214/1074 19.9 (0.18–0.22) < 0.001 344.4 < 0.001 96.5 3.98 0.002
Amoxicillin 3 322/443 72.7 (0.68–0.77) < 0.001 225.6 < 0.001 94.7 4.76 0.001
Amoxiclav 6 407/998 40.8 (0.38–0.44) < 0.001 406.2 < 0.001 97.1 2.35 0.039
Ampicillin 8 835/1114 75.0 (0.72–0.77) < 0.001 222.9 < 0.001 94.6 1.15 0.276
Ampicillin-sulbactam 3 161/354 45.5 (0.40–0.51) 0.089 178.0 < 0.001 93.3 5.54 < 0.001
Aztreonam 2 78/354 22.0 (0.18–0.27) < 0.001 172.8 < 0.001 93.1 24.1 < 0.001
Cefepime 7 280/952 29.4 (0.27–0.32) < 0.001 143.3 < 0.001 91.6 3.38 0.006
Cefixime 3 120/443 27.1 (0.23–0.31) < 0.001 124.0 < 0.001 90.3 5.58 0.001
Cefoperazone-sulbactam 2 36/198 18.2 (0.13–0.24) < 0.001 81.21 < 0.001 85.2 24.2 < 0.001
Cefotaxime 7 379/1055 35.9 (0.33–0.39) < 0.001 235.5 < 0.001 94.9 3.99 0.002
Cefoxitin 4 104/707 14.7 (0.12–0.18) < 0.001 91.61 < 0.001 86.9 13.6 < 0.001
Cefpodoxime 2 166/287 57.8 (0.52–0.63) 0.008 182.7 < 0.001 93.4 11.5 < 0.001
Ceftazidime 9 509/1209 42.1 (0.39–0.45) < 0.001 212.1 < 0.001 94.3 3.33 0.007
Ceftriaxone 5 247/844 29.3 (0.26–0.32) < 0.001 239.6 < 0.001 95.0 5.50 < 0.001
Cefuroxime 5 389/705 55.2 (0.51–0.59) 0.006 288.2 < 0.001 95.8 3.16 0.009
Cephalexin 3 146/258 56.6 (0.50–0.63) 0.035 189.3 < 0.001 93.7 12.8 < 0.001
Cephalothin 3 82/437 18.8 (0.15–0.23) < 0.001 181.0 < 0.001 93.4 3.23 0.008
Cephazolin 3 142/258 55.0 (0.49–0.61) 0.106 168.4 < 0.001 92.9 13.7 < 0.001
Ciprofloxacin 12 792/1781 44.5 (0.42–0.47) < 0.001 265.5 < 0.001 95.5 0.54 0.602
Ertapenem 1 1/227 0.4 (0.00–0.03) < 0.001 0.799 1.000 0.00 0.49 0.634
Fosfomycin 1 9/107 8.4 (0.04–0.15) < 0.001 37.35 < 0.001 67.9 21.0 < 0.001
Gentamicin 13 637/1888 33.7 (0.32–0.36) < 0.001 269.6 < 0.001 95.6 0.70 0.497
Imipenem 7 5/767 0.7 (0.00–0.02) < 0.001 3.719 0.988 0.00 5.02 < 0.001
Meropenem 3 1/354 0.3 (0.00–0.02) < 0.001 1.416 1.000 0.00 2.40 0.035
Nalidixic acid 9 777/1317 59.0 (0.56–0.62) < 0.001 248.2 < 0.001 95.2 1.70 0.118
Nitrofurantoin 10 297/1486 20.0 (0.18–0.22) < 0.001 297.1 < 0.001 96.0 3.77 0.003
Norfloxacin 5 286/614 46.6 (0.43–0.51) 0.090 273.1 < 0.001 95.6 3.20 0.009
Ofloxacin 2 101/244 41.4 (0.35–0.48) 0.007 153.5 < 0.001 92.2 13.6 < 0.001
Tetracycline 6 498/721 69.1 (0.66–0.72) < 0.001 207.3 < 0.001 94.2 2.44 0.033
Tobramycin 1 30/107 28.0 (0.20–0.37) < 0.001 103.8 < 0.001 88.4 35.2 < 0.001
Co-trimoxazole 13 1119/1888 59.3 (0.57–0.61) < 0.001 177.1 < 0.001 93.2 1.06 0.313