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Table 3 Univariate analysis of covariates associated with central nervous system involvement

From: Comparison of the clinical features and outcome of children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to visceral leishmaniasis and primary HLH: a single-center study

CNS involvement Total P-Value Primary HLH P-Value VL-associated HLH P-Value
Variables Yes (n = 23)
n (%)
No (n = 37)
n (%)
  Yes (n = 18) No (n = 22)   Yes (n = 5) No (n = 15)  
Age
 <24 months 20 (87) 22 (59.5) 0.024* 16 (88.9) 11 (50) 0.016* 4 (80) 11 (73.3) > 0.999
 ≥ 24 months 3 (13) 15 (40.5) 2 (11.1) 11 (50) 1 (20) 4 (26.7)
Sex
 Male 16 (69.6) 18 (48.6) 0.112 14 (77.8) 10 (45.5) 0.054 2 (40) 8 (53.3) > 0.999
 Female 7 (30.4) 19 (51.4) 4 (22.2) 12 (54.5) 3 (60) 7 (46.7)
Platelet <100000/μl 18 (78.3) 22 (59.5) 0.133 15 (83.3) 16 (72.7) 0.476 3 (60) 6 (40) 0.617
Bicytopenia 22 (95.7) 26 (70.3) 0.020* 17 (94.4) 17 (77.3) 0.197 5 (100) 9 (60) 0.260
Fibrinogen <150 mg/dL 9 (39.1) 23 (62.2) 0.082 7 (38.9) 13 (59.1) 0.341 2 (40) 10 (66.7) 0.347
ALT>2 × ULN (IU/L) 12 (52.2) 13 (35.1) 0.193 12 (66.7) 9 (40.9) 0.125 0 (0) 4 (26.7) 0.530
BM. hemophagocytosis 5 (21.7) 1 (2.7) 0.027* 5 (27.8) 1 (4.5) 0.073 0 (0) 0 (0)
Bleeding tendency 4 (17.4) 1 (2.7) 0.066 4 (22.2) 1 (4.5) 0.155 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. ULN upper limit of normal, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BM bone marrow, CNS central nervous system
  2. *statistically significant